Challenges of Implementing PBL in Language Classes
In this chapter, we discuss some of the challenges encountered by educators and students in PBL classes. To do so, we refer both to literature and to our findings from studies conducted between 2015 and 2017. These challenges consist of: (a) challenges encountered by tutors, (b) challenges perceived by learners, and (c) challenges caused by the use conventional teaching materials in PBL language classes. As qualitative studies conducted on the challenges of implementing PBL in language classes are extremely scant, it would be difficult to determine if challenges in language classes mirror those found in the implementation of PBL in other disciplines. However, our experience in implementing PBL in the Iranian EFL context and the Malaysian ESL context has provided us with insights on this issue. In the latter parts of the chapter, educators and students’ perceptions of PBL are discussed.
- Apple, M. W. (2008). Curriculum planning; Content, form, and politics of accountability (pp. 25–40).Google Scholar
- Azman, N., & Shin, L. K. (2012). Problem-based learning in English for a second language classroom: Students’ perspectives. International Journal of Learning, 18(6).Google Scholar
- Bearn, D. R., & Chadwick, S. M. (2010). Problem-based learning in postgraduate dental education: A qualitative evaluation of students’ experience of an orthodontic problem-based postgraduate programme. European Journal of Dental Education, 14(1), 26–34. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0579.2009.00588.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Bollela, V. R., Gabarra, M. H., da Costa, C., & Lima, R. C. (2009). Students and tutors’ social representations of assessment in problem-based learning tutorials supporting change. BMC medical Education, 9(1), 30.Google Scholar
- Boud, D., & Feletti, G. (1997). The challenge of problem-based learning (2nd ed.) London: Kogan Page.Google Scholar
- Brookfield, S. D. (1995). Becoming a critically reflective teacher. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
- English, M. C. (2013). The role of newly prepared PBL teachers’ motivational beliefs and perceptions of school conditions in their project based learning implementation (Published doctoral thesis). George Mason University, USA.Google Scholar
- Fyrenius, A., Silén, C., & Wirell, S. (2007). Students’ conceptions of underlying principles in medical physiology: An interview study of medical students’ understanding in a PBL curriculum. Advances in Physiology Education, 31(4), 364–369. https://doi.org/10.1152/advan.00108.2006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Gentry, E. (2000). Creating student-centered, problem-based classrooms. Huntsville: University of Alabama in Huntsville. Retrieved May 17, 2017, from http://aspire.cs.uah.edu/
- Gidcumb, B. (2016, October 29). Problems in problem based learning: Considering challenges of implementing PBL in the arts. Retrieved July 01, 2017, from https://educationcloset.com/2015/03/06/problems-in-problem-based-learning-considering-challenges-of-implementing-pbl-in-the-arts/
- Hung, W. (2006). The 3C3R model: A conceptual framework for designing problems in PBL. Interdisciplinary Journal of Problem-Based Learning, 1(1). Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.7771/1541-5015.1006.
- Johnson, D. W., & Johnson, F. P. (2009). Joining together: Group theory and group skills (10th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education.Google Scholar
- Koosha, M., & Yakhabi, M. (2013). Problems associated with the use of communicative language teaching in EFL contexts and possible solutions. International Journal of Foreign Language teaching and research, 1(2), 63–76.Google Scholar
- Kwan, C. Y., & Lee, M. C. (2009). Problem-based learning (PBL): Concept, application, experiences and lessons. Taiwan: Elsevier.Google Scholar
- Lantolf, J. P., & Poehner, M. E. (2004). Dynamic assessment of L2 development: Bringing the past into the future. Journal of Applied Linguistics, 1(1).Google Scholar
- Larsson, J. (2001). Problem-based learning: A possible approach to language education? Polonia Institute, Jagiellonian University. Retrieved on 5 May 2017 from http://www.nada.kth.se/~jla/docs/PBL.pdf
- Lee, R. M., & Kwan, C. Y. (1997). The use of problem-based learning in medical education. Journal of Medical Education, 1(2), 11–20.Google Scholar
- Massa, N., Dischino, M., Donnelly, J. F., Hanes, F., & Delaura, J. (2012). Problem-based learning in a pre-service technology and engineering education course. American Society for Engineering Education, AC 2012-4035.Google Scholar
- Mathews-Aydinli, J. (2007). Problem-based learning and adult English language learners. Retrieved from http://www.cal.org/adultesl/pdfs/problem-based-learning-and-adult-english-language-learners.pdf on November 17, 2012.
- Richards, J. C., Hull, J., & Proctor, S. (2012). Interchange level 3 teacher’s edition with assessment audio CD/CD-ROM. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
- Rogers, T. (2014). Overcoming implementation challenges with problem and project-based learning in advance technological education programs within community colleges. (Published doctoral thesis). North Eastern University, Boston.Google Scholar
- Savery, J. R. (2006). Overview of problem-based learning: Definitions and distinctions. Interdisciplinary Journal of Problem-based Learning, 1(1), 3.Google Scholar
- Stephenson, J. (1998). The concept of capability and its importance in higher education. Capability and quality in higher education, 1–13.Google Scholar
- Torp, L., & Sage, S. (2002). Problems as possibilities: Problem-based learning for K–16 education (2nd ed.). Alexanderia, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.Google Scholar
- Utecht, J. R. (2003). Problem-based learning in the student centered classroom. Retrieved from http://www.jeffutecht.com/docs/PBL.pdf on August 1, 2017.
- Wee, L. K. N., & Kek, M. Y. C. A. (2002). Authentic problem-based learning: Rewriting business education. Singapore: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar