Advertisement

The Regional Impact of Chinese Economic Activity in North Korea

Chapter
Part of the Palgrave Series in Asia and Pacific Studies book series (PSAPS)

Abstract

This chapter discusses the impact of China’s economic activities in North Korea on the regional security order of Northeast Asia with a focus on the Korean Peninsula. First, to encourage North Korea’s economic ‘opening up’, and to avoid regime collapse in Pyongyang. China’s economic activities offer enough funding to North Korea to improve its attractiveness, in terms of physical infrastructure, to external funding from other countries. Second, China’s control of North Korea’s fishery resources reduces South Korea’s fishery development in North Korea. It intensifies China-South Korea ocean disputes and leads to the failure of negotiations. Furthermore, Chinese economic activities reduce the effectiveness of US economic aid and subsequently delay the denuclearisation of North Korea through dialogue in the Six Party Talks.

Keywords

North Korea opening up Ieodo Island dispute Six Party Talks 

References

Primary Resource

  1. Anonymous Interviewee 1, Interview with local official, 28 Nov 2014, Seoul, South Korea.Google Scholar
  2. Anonymous Interviewee 2, Interview with local scholar, 14 Sep 2012 Changchun, Jilin province.Google Scholar
  3. Anonymous Interviewee 3, Interview with local scholar, 11 Aug 2015, Beijing.Google Scholar
  4. Anonymous Interviewee 4, Interview with local scholar, 11 Sep 2012 Changchun, Jilin province.Google Scholar
  5. Anonymous Interviewee 5, Interview with local scholar, 9 Sep 2012 Dandong, Liaoning province.Google Scholar
  6. Anonymous Interviewee 6, Interview with local scholar, 11 Sep 2012 Changchun, Jilin province.Google Scholar

Secondary Resource

  1. Abt, Felix (2014) Capitalist in North Korea: my seven years in the hermit kingdom. Tokyo: Tuttle Publishing.Google Scholar
  2. Adrian, Buzo (2018) Politics and leadership in North Korea: the guerrilla dynasty 2nd ed. London; New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  3. Alton, D. and Chidley R. (2013) Building Bridges: Is there Hope for North Korea? Oxford: Lion Books.Google Scholar
  4. Bechtol, Bruce E. (2013) The last days of Kim Jong-il: the North Korean threat in a changing era. Washington, DC: Potomac Books.Google Scholar
  5. Beck, P. M. North Korea in 2011: The Next Kim Takes the Helm. Asian Survey, Vol. 52, No. 1 (January/February 2012), pp. 65–71.Google Scholar
  6. Cha, Victor D. (2013) The impossible state: North Korea, past and future. New York: Ecco.Google Scholar
  7. Chung Jae-Ho. China’s “Soft” Clash with South Korea: The History War and Beyond. Asian Survey, Vol. 49, No. 3 (May/June 2009), pp. 468–483.Google Scholar
  8. Christopher, D. H. Real Reform in North Korea? The Aftermath of the July 2002 Economic Measures. Asian Survey, Vol. 45, No. 6 (November/December 2005), pp. 823–842.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Cumings, B. (2005) Korea’s Place in the Sun: A Modern History. London: W.W. Norton & Co. Ltd.Google Scholar
  10. Dwivedi, Sarita Sangit. North Korea-China Relations: An Asymmetric Alliance. North Korean Review, Vol. 8, No. 2 (Fall, 2012), pp. 76–93.Google Scholar
  11. French, P. (2014) North Korea: state of paranoia. London: Zed Books.Google Scholar
  12. Gause, E. Ken. (2011) North Korea under Kim Chong-il: power, politics, and prospects for change. Santa Barbara, Calif.: Praeger.Google Scholar
  13. Harrold, M. (2004) Comrades and Strangers: Behind the Closed Doors of North Korea. West Sussex: John Wiley & Sons Ltd.Google Scholar
  14. Haggard, S. and Noland, Marcus (2007) Famine in North Korea: markets, aid and reform. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  15. Haggard, S., Noland, M. and Weeks, E. Markets and Famine in North Korea. Global Asia, Vol. 3, No. 2 (August 2008), p. 23.Google Scholar
  16. Hanrahan, E. C. International Food Aid Programmes: Background and Issues. CRS Report R41072 (December 2009).Google Scholar
  17. Hecker, S. Lessons learned from the North Korean nuclear Crises. Daedalus, Vol. 139 (Winter, 2010), pp. 47–50.Google Scholar
  18. Jin Qiang-yi (eds.) (2014) Northeast Asia International Cooperation: Dilemma and Resolution. Paper Collection of Tumen River Forum 2013. Beijing: Social Science Academic Press Edition.Google Scholar
  19. Kang, J. Policy Dilemma: Food Aid to all Enemy State. International Studies Review, Vol. 345, No. 4 (October, 2005), p. 22.Google Scholar
  20. Kr-expo (2014) ‘The Introduction of Pyongyang Spring Expo’. http://www.kr-expo.com/cn/chunzhan_jieshao.asp. Retrieved on 7 Sep 2015.
  21. Lankov, A. (2013) The Real North Korea: life and politics in the failed Stalinist Utopia. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  22. Li Dun-qiu. DPRK reform: low voice with focus on efficiency. World Knowledge (世界知识 Shijie Zhishi), No. 10 (2006), pp. 38–41.Google Scholar
  23. Li Fang-Fang and Leng Chuan-hui. North Korea nearby fishery resource and status-quo of economic cooperation. World Agriculture (世界农业 Shijie Nongye), No. 10 (2008), pp. 52–60.Google Scholar
  24. Li Mu. The transition and measure of US Food aid policy to North Korea. American Research (美国研究 Meiguo Yanjiu), No. 1 (2014), pp. 10–39.Google Scholar
  25. Lim, Sung-Hoon. How Beneficial Would the Construction of a Rason-Hunchun Sub-Regional Economic Cooperation Zone in the Northeast Asian Borderlands Be? North Korean Review, Vol. 11, No. 1 (2015), pp. 63–81.Google Scholar
  26. Lim Won-Hyuk (February 13, 2006) Kim Jong-il Southern Tour Beijing’s Consensus with a North Korean Twist. A presentation at Korea-China forum on China’s economic reform, a model for DPRK. Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  27. Liu Ming. North Korea economic reform: the exploring of a third way and uncertain future. World Economy Research (世界经济研究 Shijie Jingji Yanjiu), No. 7 (2008), pp. 75–81.Google Scholar
  28. Manyin, E. M. and Nikitin, B. M. Foreign Assistance to North Korea 2012. Congressional Research Service (March 10, 2012), p. 13.Google Scholar
  29. Piao Yinzhen (2013) The analysis of the Yellow Sea maritime disputes and its impact on security cooperation between neighboring countries in Northeast Asia. Master dissertation Collection in China National Knowledge Infrastructure.Google Scholar
  30. Roy, Denny (2015) The North Korea Crisis in Sino-US Relations. In Simon Shen (ed.) North Korea and Northeast Asian regional security. London: Routledge, pp. 101–105.Google Scholar
  31. Reiss, Mitchell B. Hope over Experience. National Interest, No. 89 (May/June 2007), p. 25.Google Scholar
  32. Shi Jing-can. Sino-ROK fishery agreement’s extension and elimination. Journal of Gansu Radio & TV University (甘肃广播电视大学学报 Gansu Guangbo Dianshi Daxue xuebao), Vol. 24, No. 6 (December 2014), pp. 50–58.Google Scholar
  33. Smith, Hazel (2015) North Korea: markets and military rule. University of Central Lancashire. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  34. Sun Xiaoxia, Yu Xiao. Sino-DPRK Cooperation Strategy of Developing Rason Economic Trade zone. Euro-Asia Economy (欧亚经济 Ouya Jingji), No. 4 (2012), pp. 47–49.Google Scholar
  35. Sweeney, J. (2013) North Korea Undercover: Inside the World’s Most Secret State. London: Bantam Press.Google Scholar
  36. Szalontai, B. and Choi, C. Y. China’s Controversial Role in North Korea’s Economic Transformation: The Dilemmas of Dependency. Asian Survey, Vol. 53, No. 2 (March/April 2013), pp. 269–291.Google Scholar
  37. Tara, O. (2016) The collapse of North Korea: challenges, planning and geopolitics of unification. London: Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 17, 56, 72–73.Google Scholar
  38. Tow, T. W. The United States and Asia in 2013: From Primacy to Marginalization? Asian Survey, Vol. 54, No. 1, A Survey of Asia in 2013 (January/February 2014), pp. 12–21.Google Scholar
  39. Tudor, D. (2015) North Korea confidential: private markets, fashion trends, prison camps, dissenters and defectors. Tokyo; Rutland, Vermont; Singapore: Tuttle Publishing.Google Scholar
  40. Wang Junyou. A Comparative Research of Chang-Ji-Tu and Rason FDI Law System. Law Expo (法制博览 Fazhi Bolan), No. 8 (2018).Google Scholar
  41. Winstanley-Chesters, Robert (2015) Environment, politics, and ideology in North Korea: landscape as political project. Lanham, Maryland: Lexington Books.Google Scholar
  42. Wei Houqing. Kaesong Industrial Zone and its impacts to North Korea economic reform. The Border Economy and Culture (边疆经济与文化 Bianjiang Jingji he Wenhua), No. 10 (2005), pp. 21–27.Google Scholar
  43. Wei Zhi-jiang. The transition of Lee Myung-Bak government‘s policy to North Korea and its implication. Modern International Relation (现代国际关系 Xiandan Guoji Guanxi), No. 8 (2008), pp. 48–52.Google Scholar
  44. Wu Jie and Wang Ping. Investing North Korea: Hot thinking for the cold land. State-owned Enterprise (国企 Guoqi), No. 2 (2013), pp. 58–61.Google Scholar
  45. Xu De-rong and Qi Wei. The problems and strategy of Sino-ROK strategic cooperative partnership. Journal of China Executive Leadership Academy Pudong, Vol. 7, No. 2 (March 2013), pp. 26–36.Google Scholar
  46. Xin yuan and Huang Shuo-lin. Sino-ROK Marine Interest Problems Research. Journal of Shanghai Ocean University (上海海洋大学学报 Shanghai Haiyang Daxue Xuebao), Vol. 22, No. 3 (May 2013), pp. 419–425.Google Scholar
  47. Xu Zhengwei and Yang Xiaolong. US Policy on Foreign Economic Aid from the Perspective of Neo-classical Realism—Demonstrated by the Economic Aid to Korea in the Post-Cold War Years. Pacific Journal, Vol. 20, No. 8 (August 2012), pp. 31–38.Google Scholar
  48. Vogel, E. F. (2011) Deng Xiaoping and the transformation of China. Cambridge, Mass; London: Belknap.Google Scholar
  49. Yan Yi. Kim Jong-un: North Korea speeding up? Times Figure (时代指数 Shidai Zhishu) (August 2012), pp. 68–72.Google Scholar
  50. Yan Yu-ye. Post-Cold War US Food Aid to North Korea. International Information (国际信息 Guoji Xinxi), No. 4 (2008a), p. 20.Google Scholar
  51. Yan Yu-ye. Buy Peace: US economic assistance to North Korea after Cold War. Ph.D. Thesis Collection in China National Knowledge Infrastructure (2008b), pp. 104–106, 113–116.Google Scholar
  52. Zhang Qing-lei. Ocean dispute and China’s peaceful rising—Take example of Sino-ROK Ieodo Island Dispute. Journal of Changchun University of Science and Technology (Social Science Edition) (长春科技大学学报社科版, Changchun Keji Daxue Xuebao, sheke ban), Vol. 25, No. 10 (October 2012), pp. 9–13.Google Scholar
  53. Zhang Huizhi. An Analysis on International Development Aid to North Korea. Northeast Asia Forum (东北亚论坛, Dongbeiya Luntan), Vol. 18, No. 4 (July 2009), pp. 67–75.Google Scholar
  54. Zou Lulu. Exploring North Korea economic reform in the Kim Jong-Il era. Master Dissertation collection in China National Knowledge Infrastructure (2013), pp. 12–16, 30–31.Google Scholar
  55. Zhu, Liaoye and Xu, Yong-gen. Exploring the future of North Korea economic reform. Journal of Eastern Liaoning University (Social Science), Vol. 13, No. 5 (October 2011), pp. 130–140.Google Scholar
  56. Zhang Qing-lei (2013) Sino-ROK Ieodo Island dispute Research. Master dissertation Collection in China National Knowledge Infrastructure.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bo Gao
    • 1
  1. 1.Ningbo University of Finance and EconomicsNingboChina

Personalised recommendations