Bioinformatics of Embryonic Exposures: Lipid Metabolism and Gender as Biomedical Variables

  • K. K. LinaskEmail author
Part of the Translational Bioinformatics book series (TRBIO, volume 14)


Early pregnancy in the first month is a highly vulnerable window for adverse effects of environmental exposures on the developing embryo. We have demonstrated that three seemingly disparate factors, lithium, homocysteine or alcohol, induce cardiac outflow tract defects, when a single exposure occurs during gastrulation stages. Severity of defects relates to dose, timing of exposure during gastrulation, and gender of the embryo. We sought to define what common process in the developing heart may be altered by maternal lithium and homocysteine exposure and is protected by folic acid dietary supplementation. Using microarray studies and bioinformatics analyses, lipid metabolism was predominantly altered with male embryos displaying greater misexpression of genes than the female. Both placental and cardiac lipid metabolism was altered in a sex-dependent manner.


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© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PediatricsUSF Morsani College of MedicineTampa and St. PetersburgUSA

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