Studying Civilizations: Retrospect and Prospect

  • Rongxing Guo


Why did the Middle East host the oldest civilization of the Old World? And why did Andean South America give birth to the oldest civilization in the Western Hemisphere? Civilizations cannot be created in places where there is extremely impoverished soil—a space suitable for living is the precondition for the reproduction of human beings. However, it is not the soil fertility that had eventually given birth to the earliest civilization in Mesopotamia. In Andean South America, since it had far less frequent intercultural influences than those in the Old World did, the exogenous factors contributing to the rise of cultures and civilizations can be minimized, if not totally ignored. As a result, the endogenous geographical and environmental factors contributing to the rise of cultures and civilizations can be more clearly identified accordingly.


Civilization Cultural formation Earth’s cycle River valley Intercultural dynamics 


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© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rongxing Guo
    • 1
  1. 1.Capital University of Economics and BusinessBeijingChina

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