Civilization as Responses to Cyclical Challenges

  • Rongxing Guo


Why were indigenous civilizations usually associated with arid river valleys instead of other geographical features? Over the course of the past thousands of years, various natural disasters and threats have made humans—either individually or collectively—institutionally and intellectually more powerful than otherwise circumstances. However, most of these natural disasters and threats, as long as they occur randomly or irregularly, would not induce humans to advance their cultures and civilizations. In short, it is the cyclical disasters and threats (especially annual or seasonable river floods)—not other irregular disasters and threats—that have enabled humans to create brilliant civilizations of today. In addition, Mesopotamia (or Multipotamia)—land through which two (or more) independent rivers run—are also found to have served as hedging mechanisms for civilizations to grow and advance.


Civilization River flood Natural disaster Cyclical challenge Multipotamia 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rongxing Guo
    • 1
  1. 1.Capital University of Economics and BusinessBeijingChina

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