Environment Matters, But Not the Way You Think (I)

  • Rongxing Guo


In this chapter, we will compare three areas of distinct geographies and climates: (i) equatorial and tropical, (ii) dry or desert in the Northern Hemisphere, and (iii) semiarid or temperate in the Southern Hemisphere. Our empirical findings show that, while different environments could result in different cultures and civilizations, it is the unfriendly environment—as long as it could sustain humans—that created the first and the most powerful civilizations. Cultures and civilizations could only be created by those who were environmentally threatened and hence struggled to seek protections for their own. Not all cultures or civilizations could become powerful civilizations; some might fail eventually. Catastrophic events and natural disasters could destroy civilizations; so did friendly and comfortable environment.


Civilization Environmental threat Global history River valley Writing system 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rongxing Guo
    • 1
  1. 1.Capital University of Economics and BusinessBeijingChina

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