Evidence-Based Medicine of Arthroscopy and Endoscopy of the Foot and Ankle

  • Rocco Papalia
  • Guglielmo Torre
  • Nicola MaffulliEmail author


Arthroscopy of the ankle was firstly introduced for experimental evaluation of the joint by Burman in 1931 [1], who carried out a cadaver study to show effectiveness of rudimental arthroscopic techniques. However, widespread clinical use was observed only in the 1970s, as technical difficulties in exploring such a narrow joint space were overcame only with technological progress. In 1972, Watanabe, after having developed knee arthroscopy, described a series of 24 patients who had undergone anterior ankle arthroscopy [2].


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rocco Papalia
    • 1
  • Guglielmo Torre
    • 1
  • Nicola Maffulli
    • 2
    • 3
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Orthopaedic and Trauma SurgeryCampus Bio-Medico University of RomeRomeItaly
  2. 2.Centre for Sports and Exercise MedicineBarts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Mile End HospitalLondonUK
  3. 3.Department of Musculoskeletal Disorders, Faculty of Medicine and SurgeryUniversity of SalernoSalernoItaly

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