Advertisement

Deformation Behaviour and Fracture Mechanism of Ultrafine-Grained Aluminium Developed by Cryorolling

  • A. Dhal
  • S. K. Panigrahi
  • M. S. ShunmugamEmail author
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes on Multidisciplinary Industrial Engineering book series (LNMUINEN)

Abstract

This chapter highlights the fundamental deformation and fracture mechanism of an engineered ultrafine-grained (UFG) material developed by a combination of cryorolling and short-annealing treatment. The UFG material developed by cryorolling possesses superlative tensile strength. However, the ductility and strain hardening potential of the material is found to be low, reducing its manufacturing capabilities. Controlled post-deformation annealing results in a combination of good strength and ductility. The anisotropic property of the material is also improved after short-term annealing. These properties have been attributed to the unique equiaxed, thermally stable microstructure comprising of high-angled nanometric grains. The various mechanical properties have been experimentally evaluated by performing the tensile test at all three different processing conditions (base, cryorolled, annealed) and the corresponding strain hardening potential, fracture behaviour and anisotropic properties have been systematically investigated. These properties have been correlated with the microstructural features of the material. This has been achieved by mechanical testing and characterisation of the material by employing transmission electron microscopy, fractographic analysis and determination of mechanical anisotropy coefficient (Lankford coefficient). Finally, a case study on the improved microforming abilities of UFG material over coarse-grained material has been presented.

Keywords

Ultrafine-grained materials Cryorolling Structure–property–manufacturability correlation Strain hardening potential Fracture behaviour 

References

  1. 1.
    Fontaras, G., Zacharof, N.G., Ciuffo, B.: Fuel consumption and CO2 emissions from passenger cars in Europe—laboratory versus real-world emissions. Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. 60, 97–131 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Sah, S.K., Bawase, M.A., Saraf, M.R.: Light-weight materials and their automotive applications. SAE Int. (2014)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    McAuley, J.W.: Global sustainability and key needs in future automotive design. Environ. Sci. Technol. 37(23), 5414–5416 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Mohanty, P.S., Gruzleski, J.E.: Mechanism of grain refinement in aluminium. Acta Metall. Mater. 43(5), 2001–2012 (1995)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    St. John, D.H., Qian, M., Easton, M.A., Cao, P., Hildebrand, Z.: Grain refinement of magnesium alloys. Metall. Mater. Trans. A 36(7), 1669–1679 (2005)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Valiev, R.: Nanostructuring of metals by severe plastic deformation for advanced properties. Nat. Mater. 3(8), 511–516 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Koch, C.C., Youssef, K.M., Scattergood, R.O., Murty, K.L.: Breakthroughs in optimization of mechanical properties of nanostructured metals and alloys. Adv. Eng. Mater. 7(9), 787–794 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Estrin, Y., Vinogradov, A.: Extreme grain refinement by severe plastic deformation: a wealth of challenging science. Acta Mater. 61(3), 782–817 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Valiev, R.Z., Estrin, Y., Horita, Z., Langdon, T.G., Zehetbauer, M.J., Zhu, Y.T.: Fundamentals of superior properties in bulk nanospd materials. Mater. Res. Lett. 3831, 1–21 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Langdon, T.G.: Twenty-five years of ultrafine-grained materials: achieving exceptional properties through grain refinement. Acta Mater. 61(19), 7035–7059 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Wang, Y., Chen, M., Zhou, F., Ma, E.: High tensile ductility in a nanostructured metal. Nature 419(6910), 912–915 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Dhal, A., Panigrahi, S.K., Shunmugam, M.S.: Influence of annealing on stain hardening behaviour and fracture properties of a cryorolled Al 2014 alloy. Mater. Sci. Eng. A 229–238 (2015)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Dhal, A., Panigrahi, S.K., Shunmugam, M.S.: Insight into the microstructural evolution during cryo-severe plastic deformation and post-deformation annealing of aluminum and its alloys. J. Alloys Compd. 726, 229–238 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Srinivas, B., Dhal, A., Panigrahi, S.K.: A mathematical prediction model to establish the role of stacking fault energy on the cryo-deformation behavior of FCC materials at different strain levels. Int. J. Plast. 97, 159–177 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Thangaraju, S., Heilmaier, M., Murty, B.S., Vadlamani, S.S.: On the estimation of true Hall-Petch constants and their role on the superposition law exponent in al alloys. Adv. Eng. Mater. 14(10), 892–897 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Kals, T., Eckstein, R.: Miniaturization in sheet metal working. J. Mater. Process. Technol. 103, 95–101 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Vollertsen, F., Hu, Z., Niehoff, H.S., Theiler, C.: State of the art in micro forming and investigations into micro deep drawing. J. Mater. Process. Technol. 151, 70–79 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Geiger, M., Klinger, M., Eckstein, R., Tiesler, N., Engel, U.: Microforming. CIRP Ann. Manuf. Technol. 2, 445–462 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Hug, E., Keller, C.: Intrinsic effects due to the reduction of thickness on the mechanical behaviour of nickel polycrystals. Metall. Mater. Trans. A 41, 2498–2506 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Deng, J.H., Fu, M.W., Chan, W.L.: Size effect on material surface deformation behavior in micro-forming process. Mat. Sci. Eng. 528, 4799–4806 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Chan, W.L., Fu, M.W., Yang, B.: Experimental studies of the size effect affected microscale plastic deformation in micro upsetting process. Mater. Sci. Eng. A 534, 374–383 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Dai, Y.Z., Chiang, F.P.: On the mechanism of plastic-deformation induced surface-roughness. J. Eng. Mater. Technol. Trans. ASME 114, 432–438 (1992)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Dhal, A., Panigrahi, S.K., Shunmugam, M.S.: Development and characterisation of fine-grained aluminium for micro sheet metal forming operation. In: Proceedings of 6th International and 27th All India Manufacturing Technology, Design and Research Conference, Pune, pp. 1497–1500 (2016). ISBN: 978-93-86256-27-0Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Mechanical EngineeringIndian Institute of Technology MadrasChennaiIndia

Personalised recommendations