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Urbanisation and Surface Urban Heat Island Intensity (SUHII)

Chapter

Abstract

A complete understanding of urban environment becomes increasingly important in the present world where more than half of the human population resides in the urban areas. A warmer surface temperature exists in the urban area due to change in land cover and population density, indicated as urban heat island (UHI). Traditionally, UHI is linked with air temperature differences between urban and rural areas using pairs of in situ climatology data. The term surface UHI (SUHI) is used to explicitly distinguish UHIs measured using land surface temperature (LST). SUHII is a widely recognized surrogate index indirectly addressing the heat island effect. The urban climate largely differs from the non-urban or rural climate affecting not only the temperature but cloudiness, precipitation, water and air quality as well. The long-term monitoring of UHI is essential to better understand the urban climatology. Understanding the UHI behaviour has a concern primarily for the human health and energy consumption. The factors driving UHI is an important aspect of climate research. Several attempts have been made employing a range of methods to investigate the energy balance of global urban centres. India ranking at second largest urban population of the world is projected to have the highest urban growth rate in the next 30 years. The UHI studies in India have been undertaken mostly within individual cities using varied methodology. This chapter provides a concise compilation different studies characterizing UHI for urban centres of India. The chapter briefly reports results from the first assessment of seasonal and diurnal characteristics of SUHI overall large urban centres of India carried out by Shastri et al. in Sci Rep 7:40178 (2017).

Keywords

Urbanization Urban heat island India 

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.M. S. Patel Department of Civil EngineeringC.S. Patel Institute of Technology, Charotar University of Science and TechnologyChanga, AnandIndia
  2. 2.Interdisciplinary Program in Climate StudiesIndian Institute of Technology BombayMumbaiIndia
  3. 3.Department of Civil EngineeringIndian Institute of Technology BombayMumbaiIndia

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