Skip to main content

North Korean Identity as a Challenge to East Asia’s Regional Order

Part of the Asia Today book series (ASIAT)

Abstract

How has North Korea challenged regional order in East Asia, at times driving some actors apart and others together? These trends are explained by and reflected in North Korean national identity, detailed in this chapter’s study of North Korean political history, institutions, and diplomacy. Even under the heavy influence of the Kim regime, North Korean national identity is not monolithic, either in its projection from Pyongyang or in the perception of international observers. The findings of this chapter advise against writing off North Korea as a bad actor doomed to collapse or caricaturizing it as a subject in need of “sunshine” or as a member of an “evil” axis. The open question is whether and how North Korea can coexist with Asia’s changing regional order.

Keywords

  • North Korean
  • Regional Order
  • Pyongyang
  • Nationalist Identity
  • Korean Social Science Journal

These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

An earlier version of this chapter appeared as an article in the Korean Social Science Journal, Vol. 44, No. 1, pp. 51–71; republished here with permission. The author is grateful to Seayoung (Sarah) Kim for excellent research assistance and to colleagues at a February 2017 workshop at Yonsei University for helpful feedback.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Buying options

Chapter
USD   29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • DOI: 10.1007/978-981-13-0256-5_6
  • Chapter length: 36 pages
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
eBook
USD   84.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • ISBN: 978-981-13-0256-5
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
Softcover Book
USD   109.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Hardcover Book
USD   149.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)

Notes

  1. 1.

    For example, a basic search on NYTimes.com suggests that of the 1007 articles published in 2016 that mention “North Korea,” 100% reference “nuclear” or “missile” or “human rights.”

  2. 2.

    Rawi Abdelal, Yoshiko M. Herrera, Alastair Iain Johnston, and Rose McDermott, eds., Measuring Identity: A guide for social scientists (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2009).

  3. 3.

    National identity is a shared sense of community attached to a specified territory and based on a common culture, ethnicity, or set of civic principles (Alexander J. Motyl, ed., Encyclopedia of Nationalism (San Diego, CA: Academic Press, 2000), pp. 360–361). According to Smith, nationalism is an ideology in service of national identity, specifically, nationalism is “an ideological movement for attaining and maintaining the autonomy, unity and identity of a nation” (Anthony D. Smith, National Identity (Reno, NV: University of Nevada Press, 1991), p. 74).

  4. 4.

    Myong-Hyun Go, “The merits of conducting surveys inside North Korea,” Beyond Parallel, 2016,

    http://beyondparallel.csis.org/the-merits-of-conducting-surveys-inside-north-korea (accessed 25 January 2017).

  5. 5.

    See, for example, Mehreen Khan, “Six charts that show how North Korea became the most miserable place on earth,” Telegraph, 1 December 2014; Fareed Zakaria GPS Television Transcript, CNN, 15 January 2017; “Evil genius,” Economist, 8 October 2016.

  6. 6.

    Isozaki, Atsuhito, and Katsumi Sawada (礒崎敦仁, 澤田克己), Introduction to North Korea (北朝鮮入門 単行本) (Tokyo: Toyo Keizai, 2017).

  7. 7.

    Suk-Young Kim, Illusive Utopia: Theater, Film, and Everyday Performance in North Korea (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2010), p. 319, as discussed in David C. Kang, “They think they’re normal: Enduring questions and new research on North Korea—A review essay,” International Security 36:3 (2011): p. 145.

  8. 8.

    This study focuses on regional security architecture but at points addresses economic development and institutions because of the importance of the identity-economics-security nexus for regional order ; see T. J. Pempel, The Economy-Security Nexus in Northeast Asia (New York, NY: Routledge, 2013).

  9. 9.

    Gilbert Rozman, Northeast Asia’s Stunted Regionalism: Bilateral distrust in the shadow of globalization (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2004); Gilbert Rozman, Strategic Thinking about the Korean Nuclear Crisis: Four parties caught between North Korea and the United States (New York, NY: Palgrave, 2011).

  10. 10.

    See Chap. 3 in this volume by T.J. Pempel on Post-Cold War Order in the Asia-Pacific.

  11. 11.

    Jonathan T. Chow and Leif-Eric Easley, “Persuading pariahs: Myanmar’s strategic decision for reform and opening,” Pacific Affairs 89:3 (2016).

  12. 12.

    Aidan Foster-Carter, Keys to the Kimdom: North Korea’s economic heritage and prospects after Kim Jong-il’s death (Korea Economic Institute, 2012).

    http://www.keia.org/sites/default/files/publications/aps_foster-carter_0_0.pdf (accessed 25 January 2017), pp. 7–8.

  13. 13.

    Haigo Sato, “A Japanese perspective on North Korea: Troubled bilateral relations in a complex multilateral framework,” International Journal of Korean Unification Studies 18:1 (2009): pp. 63–65.

  14. 14.

    David von Hippel, Scott Bruce, and Peter Hayes, “Transforming the DPRK through energy sector development,” 38 North (Washington, DC: U.S.-Korea Institute at SAIS, 2011), p. 2.

  15. 15.

    Sheila A. Smith, “North Korea in Japan’s strategic thinking,” Asan Forum, 2013, http://www.theasanforum.org/north-korea-in-japans-strategic-thinking (accessed 25 January 2017).

  16. 16.

    Ken E. Gause, North Korean Leadership Dynamics and Decision-making under Kim Jong-un: A second year assessment (Alexandria, VA: Center for Naval Analyses, 2014), pp. 1–2.

  17. 17.

    Victor D. Cha, “The North Korea question,” Asian Survey 56:2 (2016): pp. 266–268.

  18. 18.

    Cheol Gee Yoon (윤철기), “Change of class-system and working-class’ ideological identity after marketization in North Korea (북한 시장화 이후 계급체계와 노동계급의 이데올로기적 정체성 변화),” Review of North Korean Studies (현대북한연구) 19:2 (2016): pp. 156, 166–167.

  19. 19.

    Cha “The North Korea question,” p. 269.

  20. 20.

    Susan Shirk “The Northeast Asia Cooperation Dialogue,” in Security Cooperation in Northeast Asia: Architecture and Beyond, ed. T.J. Pempel and Chung-Min Lee, pp. 193–211 (New York, NY: Routledge, 2012).

  21. 21.

    Yoichi Funabashi, The Peninsula Question: A chronicle of the second Korean nuclear crisis (Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution Press, 2008), p. 269.

  22. 22.

    Many South Korean officials in the Lee Myung-bak and Park Geun-hye administrations were convinced of this to the point of concluding that Seoul needs to show greater willingness to retaliate against Pyongyang (Tae-Hyo Kim, “Game changer: North Korea under the Obama-Lee partnership and beyond,” Korea Observer 44:2 (2013), pp. 289–314).

  23. 23.

    Tetsuo Murooka and Hiroyasu Akutsu, “The Korean peninsula: North Korea’s advanced nuclear and missile capabilities, and South Korea’s response,” in East Asian Strategic Review (Tokyo: National Institute for Defense Studies, 2016).

  24. 24.

    Sakata, Yasuyo (阪田恭代), “U.S. Asia-Pacific Rebalance and the U.S.-ROK Alliance (米国のアジ ア太平洋リバランス政策と米韓同盟),” Journal of International Security (国際安全保障) 44:1 (2016): 49–63.

  25. 25.

    For a review of international relations theories applied to Korean security and foreign policy issues, see Scott Snyder and Leif-Eric Easley, “South Korea’s foreign relations and security policies,” in The Oxford Handbook of the International Relations of Asia, ed. S. Pekkanen, J. Ravenhill and R. Foot (New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 2014).

  26. 26.

    Seung-Hwan Song (송승환), Our Nation-First Conception and National Reunification (우리 민족주의와조국통일) (Pyongyang: Pyongyang Press, 2004), pp. 11–19 as discussed in Young Chul Cho, “North Korea’s nationalist discourse: A critical interpretation,” Korea Observer 42:2 (2011): p. 320.

  27. 27.

    Jae Ho Jeon (전재호) “A comparative research of South and North Korea’s nationalism: On the focus of ‘the use of history’ (남북한 민족주의 비교연구)” Korea and World Politics (한국과 국제 정치) 18:1 (2002).

  28. 28.

    Jeon, “A comparative research of South and North Korea’s nationalism,” pp. 160–161.

  29. 29.

    Cho, “North Korea’s nationalist discourse,” p. 324.

  30. 30.

    Takashi Sakai and Shunji Hiraiwa (坂井隆, 平岩俊司), Dictatorship: North Korea’s true nature (独裁国家:北朝鮮の実像) (Tokyo: Asahi Publishing, 2017), pp. 270–276.

  31. 31.

    Jin Woong Kang, “Historical changes in North Korean nationalism,” North Korean Review, 3:1 (2007), pp. 86–104; B.R. Myers, “North Korea’s state-loyalty advantage,” Journal of International Affairs 65:1 (2011): pp. 115–129.

  32. 32.

    Chung-in Moon and Ildo Hwang, “Identity, supreme dignity, and North Korea’s external behavior: A cultural/ideational perspective,” Korea Observer, 45:1 (2014), p. 9.

  33. 33.

    Jonathan T. Chow, “North Korea’s participation in the Universal Periodic Review of Human Rights,” Australian Journal of International Affairs 71:2 (2017).

  34. 34.

    Moo-Chul Lee (이무철), “‘North Korean human rights issues’ and the North Korean government’s viewpoint on human rights (‘북한 인권문제’와 북한의 인권관 - 인권에 대한 북한의 시각과 정책 에 대한 비판적 평가),” Review of North Korean Studies (현대북한연구) 14:1 (2011), p. 147.

  35. 35.

    Jiyoung Song, “The right to survival in the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea,” European Journal of East Asian Studies 9:1 (2010), pp. 87–90.

  36. 36.

    Andrei Lankov, Crisis in North Korea: The Failure of De-Stalinization, 1956 (Honolulu, HI: University of Hawai’i Press, 2005), p. 177; Dong-bae Lee, “Portrayals of non-North Koreans in North Korean textbooks and the formation of national identity,” Asian Studies Review 34:3 (2010): p. 350.

  37. 37.

    Jin Woong Kang, “North Korea’s militant nationalism and people’s everyday lives: Past and present,” Journal of Historical Sociology 25:1 (2012): p. 3.

  38. 38.

    Young-soon Chung, “Identity politics in the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (DPRK),” The Review of Korean Studies 14:3 (2011): pp. 105–106.

  39. 39.

    Gi-Wook Shin, Ethnic Nationalism in Korea: Genealogy, politics, and legacy (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2006).

  40. 40.

    Myers, “North Korea’s state-loyalty advantage,” pp. 115–117.

  41. 41.

    Ibid., p. 117.

  42. 42.

    Byung-Ho Chung, “Between defector and migrant: Identities and strategies of North Koreans in South Korea,” Korean Studies 32 (2009): pp. 1–27; Sandra Fahy, Marching through Suffering: Loss and survival in North Korea (New York, NY: Columbia University Press, 2015).

  43. 43.

    Stephan Haggard and Marcus Noland, Witness to Transformation: Refugee insights into North Korea (Washington, DC: Peterson Institute, 2010).

  44. 44.

    Chung, “Between defector and migrant.”

  45. 45.

    Han S. Park, “North Korean perceptions of self and others: Implications for policy choices,” Pacific Affairs 73:4 (2000): pp. 503–516.

  46. 46.

    Jacques EC. Hymans, “Assessing North Korean nuclear intentions and capacities: A new approach,” Journal of East Asian Studies 8:2 (2008): pp. 260–264.

  47. 47.

    Bomi Kim, “North Korea’s siege mentality: A sociopolitical analysis of the Kim Jong-un regime’s foreign policies,” Asian Perspective 40:2 (2016): pp. 225–232.

  48. 48.

    Gibung Kwon, “Recognition of estranged other - A theoretical reflection on politics of identity and systems integration in inter-Korean relations,” The Korean Journal of International Studies 50:3 (2010), pp. 157–163.

  49. 49.

    Key-young Son, “Entrenching ‘identity norms’ of tolerance and engagement: lessons from rapprochement between North and South Korea,” Review of International Studies 33:3 (2007): pp. 489–509.

  50. 50.

    Sang Ki Kim and Keun-sik Kim (김상기, 김근식), “The prospects for North Korea’s international socialization: Participation in international organizations and changes in foreign policy preferences (북한의 국제적 사회와 전망: 국제기구 참여와 외교정책 선호의 변화, 1991–2005),” Korean Journal of International Studies (국제정치논총) 55:2 (2015): pp. 191–193.

  51. 51.

    HyunJoo Lee (이현주), “Collective identity of North Korea and social integration identity of future generations in Korean peninsula” (북한의 집단정체성과 한반도 미래세대 사회통합정체성), Journal of Asia-Pacific Studies (아태연구) 23:2 (2016).

  52. 52.

    Walker Connor, Ethnonationalism: The Quest for Understanding (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1994), as discussed in Mary Nasr, The Development of Nationalism in North Korea (World Congress of Korean Studies, 2012) http://congress.aks.ac.kr/korean/files/2_1357624894.pdf (accessed 25 January 2017), p. 3.

  53. 53.

    Cho, “North Korea’s nationalist discourse,” p. 320.

  54. 54.

    Ibid., p. 318.

  55. 55.

    William E. Connolly, Identity/Difference: Democratic negotiations of political paradox, Expanded Edition (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2002), p. 64, as discussed in Cho, “North Korea’s nationalist discourse,” p. 313.

  56. 56.

    Cho, “North Korea’s nationalist discourse,” p. 322.

  57. 57.

    In Ae Hyun, “Analyzing the structure of the North Korean leader myth and creating the Kim Jong Un myth,” Journal of Peace and Unification 5:1 (2015), p. 79.

  58. 58.

    Hyun, “Analyzing the structure of the North Korean leader myth,” pp. 80–82.

  59. 59.

    Myers, “North Korea’s state-loyalty advantage,” pp. 118–119.

  60. 60.

    Jae-Cheon Lim, Leader Symbols and Personality Cult in North Korea (New York, NY: Routledge, 2015), p. 12.

  61. 61.

    Hyun, “Analyzing the structure of the North Korean leader myth,” pp. 89–90.

  62. 62.

    Gause, North Korean Leadership Dynamics, p. 127.

  63. 63.

    Myers, “North Korea’s state-loyalty advantage,” p. 118.

  64. 64.

    Pyongyang Times, Kim Jong-il’s Work ‘On the Juche Idea’: The socio-historical principles of the Juche Idea, June 2, 2001, as discussed in Cho, “North Korea’s nationalist discourse,” p. 322.

  65. 65.

    Moon and Hwang, “Identity, supreme dignity, and North Korea’s external behavior,” p. 10.

  66. 66.

    Jeong Bok Lee (이정복), “History and implications of the linguistic and cultural movements in North Korea (북한 언어문화 운동의 역사와 시사점),” Korean Language and Literature Society (배달 말학회) 55 (2011): p. 186.

  67. 67.

    Lee, “History and implications,” p. 167.

  68. 68.

    Cho, “North Korea’s nationalist discourse, pp. 329–332.

  69. 69.

    Robert M. Collins, Marked for Life: Songbun, North Korea’s social classification system (Committee for Human Rights in North Korea, 2012), pp. 1–2.

  70. 70.

    Collins, Marked for Life, p. 2.

  71. 71.

    Ibid., pp. 5–6.

  72. 72.

    Kang, “Historical changes in North Korean nationalism,” p. 88.

  73. 73.

    Ibid., p. 90.

  74. 74.

    Ibid., p. 94; Nasr, The Development of Nationalism, p. 4.

  75. 75.

    Korean Workers’ Party, A Manual of the History of Korean Workers’ Party (Pyongyang: Korean Workers’ Party Press, 1964), as discussed in Kang, “Historical changes in North Korean nationalism,” p. 94; Nasr, The Development of Nationalism, p. 4.

  76. 76.

    Nasr, The Development of Nationalism, pp. 5–6.

  77. 77.

    Kang, “North Korea’s militant nationalism,” pp. 10–11.

  78. 78.

    The author wishes to thank an anonymous reviewer of the Korean Social Science Journal for advising on elaboration of this point.

  79. 79.

    Lankov, Crisis in North Korea, pp. 8, 175.

  80. 80.

    Ibid., p. 175.

  81. 81.

    Byungjin ” means “progress in tandem” or “to move two things forward simultaneously.” Kim Il-sung declared the byungjin line in 1962 as a national economic and defense strategy. It is different from Kim Jong-un’s byungjin line announced in 2013 that advocates for “a higher stage of the original line” with more emphasis on economic development. So Yeol Kim, “Byungjin lives as Kim seeks guns and butter,” Daily NK, 2013, http://www.dailynk.com/english/read.php?cataId=nk01700&num=10453 (accessed 25 January 2017).

  82. 82.

    Avram Agov, “North Korea’s alliances and the unfinished Korean War,” Journal of Korean Studies 18:2 (2013): pp. 248–250.

  83. 83.

    Yongho Kim, North Korean Foreign Policy: Security dilemma and succession (Plymouth, UK: Lexington Books, 2011), p. 65.

  84. 84.

    Charles K. Armstrong, “Socialism, sovereignty, and the North Korean exception,” in North Korea: Toward a better understanding, ed. S. Ryang, (Plymouth, U.K.: Lexington Books, 2009), pp. 45–46.

  85. 85.

    Sungkwan Park, “Continuity and change in North Korean foreign policy toward Southeast Asia,” The Korean Journal of International Studies 43:3 (2003): pp. 245–246.

  86. 86.

    Nasr, The Development of Nationalism, p. 8.

  87. 87.

    The North Korean leadership demoted Marxism’s place in the national identity to the point of deleting “communism” from the state constitution in 2009 (Song, “The right to survival,” p. 87). By replacing communist discourses with principles of military-first politics and juche in the amended constitution, Kim Jong-il was able to justify his regime’s rule in the name of North Korean identity (Ministry of Unification, Korea, Understanding North Korea (Seoul: Institute for Unification Education, 2012), p. 37).

  88. 88.

    Bruce Cumings, Korea’s Place in the Sun: A Modern History (New York, NY: W. W. Norton, 1997), p. 404, as discussed in Kang, “Historical changes in North Korean nationalism,” p. 95.

  89. 89.

    Kang, “Historical changes in North Korean nationalism,” pp. 97–98; Gause, North Korean Leadership Dynamics, p. 32.

  90. 90.

    Cho, “North Korea’s nationalist discourse,” p. 321.

  91. 91.

    Jae-Jung Suh, Origins of North Korea’s Juche: Colonialism, war, and development (Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 2013), p. 8.

  92. 92.

    Myers, “North Korea’s state-loyalty advantage,” pp. 119–120; Park, “North Korean perceptions of self and others,” p. 511.

  93. 93.

    Myers, “North Korea’s state-loyalty advantage,” p. 119; Jae-Jung Suh, “Introduction: Making sense of North Korea: institutionalizing juche at the nexus of self and other,” Journal of Korean Studies 12:1 (2007): p. 10.

  94. 94.

    Myers, “North Korea’s state-loyalty advantage,” p. 119; Park, “North Korean perceptions of self and others,” p. 511.

  95. 95.

    Myers, “North Korea’s state-loyalty advantage,” p. 126.

  96. 96.

    Patrick McEachern, Inside the Red Box: North Korea’s post-totalitarian politics (New York, NY: Columbia University Press, 2010), p. 87.

  97. 97.

    McEachern, Inside the Red Box, p. 88.

  98. 98.

    Gause, North Korean Leadership Dynamics, p. 5.

  99. 99.

    Author conversation with South Korean ambassador-level security expert in Seoul, February 2017.

  100. 100.

    Gause, North Korean Leadership Dynamics, pp. 7–8.

  101. 101.

    Eric J. Ballbach, “North Korea’s emerging nuclear state identity,” The Korean Journal of International Studies 14:3 (2016): p. 392.

  102. 102.

    Ballbach, “North Korea’s emerging nuclear state identity,” p. 397.

  103. 103.

    Ming Liu, “Changes and continuities in Pyongyang’s China Policy,” in North Korea in Transition: Politics, economy, and society, ed. K.A. Park and S. Snyder, (pp. 211–238). (Lanham, Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield, 2013), p. 230.

  104. 104.

    Park, “North Korean perceptions of self and others,” p. 508.

  105. 105.

    Kent Boydston, “Kim Jong-un’s 2017 new year’s address,” Witness to Transformation blog, 2017, https://piie.com/blogs/north-korea-witness-transformation/kim-jong-uns-2017-new-years-address (accessed 25 January 2017).

  106. 106.

    Kim Jong-un, “Annual New Year’s Address,” KCNA transcript via the National Committee on North Korea, 2017, http://www.ncnk.org/resources/news-items/kim-jong-uns-speeches-and-public-statements-1/ kim-jong-uns-2017-new-years-address (accessed 25 January 2017).

  107. 107.

    Kim Jong-un, “Supreme Leader Kim Jong Un’s Report to the Seventh Congress of the Workers’ Party of Korea on the Work of the Central Committee,” KCNA transcript via the National Committee on North Korea, 2016, http://www.ncnk.org/resources/news-items/kim-jong-uns-speeches-and-public-statements-1/KJU_Speeches_7th_Congress.pdf (accessed 25 January 2017).

  108. 108.

    Leif-Eric Easley, “Nationalist princes and patriotic publics: Machiavelli and Rousseau’s enduring insights on nationalism,” The Korean Journal of International Studies 10:1 (2012): p. 119.

  109. 109.

    In public opinion polls, Americans have ranked North Korea least favorably among all countries, slightly below Iran (Gallup, North Korea least favorable among nations, 19 February 2014, http://www.gallup.com/poll/167489/north-korea-least-favorable-among-nations.aspx (accessed 25 January 2017)). On a 0–10 favorability scale for foreign leaders, South Koreans rated Kim Jong-un at 0.8, the lowest score recorded (Asan Institute, “South Koreans and their neighbors,” Asan Public Opinion Surveys, 2016, http://en.asaninst.org/contents/south-koreans-and-their-neighbors-2016 (accessed 25 January 2017)). Over 90% of Japanese say they dislike or distrust North Korea (Japan News Network, “JNN public opinion poll (JNN 世論調査),” 29 April–30 April 2017, http://news.tbs.co.jp/newsi_sp/yoron/backnumber/20170429/q3-1.html (accessed 1 May 2017)). Criticism of North Korea is so pervasive on Chinese websites and social media that Pyongyang reportedly asked Beijing to censor posts with references to “Fatty Kim the Third.” Also censored was an admittedly unscientific Weibo poll in which two-thirds of Chinese respondents favored a hypothetical US military strike against North Korea’s nuclear weapons (Jane Perlez and Sang-hun Choe, “China struggles for balance in response to North Korea’s boldness,” New York Times, 7 February 2016).

  110. 110.

    Jiyoon Kim, “National identity and attitudes toward North Korean defectors,” in Asia’s Slippery Slope: Joint U.S.-Korea academic studies 25, ed. G. Rozman (Washington, DC: Korea Economic Institute, 2014), p. 97.

  111. 111.

    Shin, Ethnic Nationalism in Korea, as discussed in Emma Campbell, South Korea’s New Nationalism: The end of ‘one Korea’? (Boulder, CO: First Forum Press, 2016), p. 2.

  112. 112.

    Kim, “National identity and attitudes toward North Korean defectors,” p. 99.

  113. 113.

    Ibid., p. 100; Campbell, South Korea’s New Nationalism, p. 2.

  114. 114.

    Park, “North Korean perceptions of self and others,” p. 508.

  115. 115.

    Ministry of Unification, Korea, Understanding North Korea (Seoul: Institute for Unification Education, 2014), p. 101.

  116. 116.

    Ibid.

  117. 117.

    Ministry of Defense, Japan, “Part I: Security environment surrounding Japan,” Defense of Japan (Annual White Paper), 2016,

    http://www.mod.go.jp/e/publ/w_paper/pdf/2016/DOJ2016_1-1-1_web.pdf (accessed 25 January 2017), p. 2.

  118. 118.

    Linus Hagström and Ulv Hanssen, “The North Korean abduction issue: emotions, securitisation and the reconstruction of Japanese identity from ‘aggressor’ to ‘victim’ and from ‘pacifist’ to ‘normal,’” The Pacific Review 28:1 (2015).

  119. 119.

    Richard J. Samuels, “Kidnapping politics in East Asia,” Journal of East Asian Studies, 10:3 (2010): p. 367.

  120. 120.

    Christopher W. Hughes, Japan’s economic power and security: Japan and North Korea (New York, NY: Routledge, 2013).

  121. 121.

    Murooka and Akutsu, “The Korean peninsula,” p. 86.

  122. 122.

    Narushige Michishita, North Korea’s Military-Diplomatic Campaigns, 1966–2008 (New York, NY: Routledge, 2009), p. 136; Masao Okonogi, Junya Nishino, and Chung-in Moon (小此木 政夫, 西野 純也, 文正仁), eds., East Asia and North Korea Problems at the Turning Point (転 換 期の東アジアと北朝 鮮 問 題) (Tokyo: Keio University, 2012).

  123. 123.

    Christopher W. Hughes, “‘Super-sizing’ the DPRK threat: Japan’s evolving military posture and North Korea” Asian Survey 49:2 (2009): p. 297.

  124. 124.

    Ibid., p. 304.

  125. 125.

    Leif-Eric Easley, “How proactive? How pacifist? Charting Japan’s evolving defence posture,” Australian Journal of International Affairs 71:1 (2017): pp. 71–72, 81.

  126. 126.

    Izumi Hajime (伊豆見元), What is Happening in North Korea?: The philosophy of the Kim Jong-un regime (北朝鮮で何が起きているのか: 金正恩体制の実相) (Tokyo: Chikuma Shinsho, 2013).

  127. 127.

    Denny Roy, “North Korea and the madman theory,” Security Dialogue, 25:3 (1994): p. 308.

  128. 128.

    Scott Snyder, Negotiating on the Edge: North Korean negotiating behavior (Washington, DC: U.S. Institute of Peace Press, 1999).

  129. 129.

    Jonathan D. Pollack, No Exit: North Korea, Nuclear Weapons, and International Security, (International Institute for Strategic Studies Adelphi Papers 418–419, 2011), p. 190, 207; Evans J.R. Revere, Facing the facts: towards a new U.S. North Korea policy (Washington, DC: Brookings Institution, 2013), https://www.brookings.edu/wp-content/uploads/2016/06/16-north-korea-denuclearization-revere-paper.pdf (accessed 25 January 2017).

  130. 130.

    Ralph A. Cossa, “Planning for the Future of the ROK-U.S. Alliance: A joint vision for today and post-reunification,” Korean Journal of Defense Analysis 25:4 (2013).

  131. 131.

    Hu Jintao, “Letter to Kim Jong-il on the 50th Anniversary of Friendship Treaty,” 2011, http://english.yonhapnews.co.kr/northkorea/2011/07/13/35/0401000000AEN20110713009500325F.html (accessed 25 January 2017).

  132. 132.

    Yongming Shi, “Pyongyang’s path to prosperity: North Korea ponders a shift of strategic focus to economic development,” Beijing Review 24 (2011).

  133. 133.

    Anne Wu, “What China whispers to North Korea,” Washington Quarterly 28:2 (2005).

  134. 134.

    Liu, “Changes and continuities in Pyongyang’s China Policy.”

  135. 135.

    Xiao Ren, “Toward a Normal State-To-State Relationship?: China and the DPRK in Changing Northeast Asia,” North Korean Review 11:2 (2015).

  136. 136.

    Feng Zhu, “Shifting tides: China and North Korea,” in The Architecture of Security in the Asia-Pacific, ed. R. Huisken (Canberra: Australian National University Press, 2009), p. 48.

  137. 137.

    Leif-Eric Easley and In Young Park, “China’s norms in its near abroad: understanding Beijing’s North Korea policy,” Journal of Contemporary China 25:101 (2016).

  138. 138.

    Easley and Park, “China’s norms in its near abroad.”

  139. 139.

    Ibid., p. 2.

  140. 140.

    Andrew Scobell, China and North Korea: From Comrades-In-Arms to Allies at Arm’s Length (Carlisle, PA: Strategic Studies Institute, U.S. Army War College, 2004).

  141. 141.

    Wookhee Shin, “Second image reconsidered: quest for unit complexity in Northeast Asia,” Korean Social Science Journal 43:2 (2016): p. 71.

  142. 142.

    See Chap. 2 by Evelyn Goh in this volume on Conceptualizing the Economic-Security-Identity Nexus.

  143. 143.

    “A sharper choice on North Korea: engaging China for a Stable Northeast Asia,” Council on Foreign Relations Task Force Report No. 74, 2016,

    http://www.cfr.org/north-korea/sharper-choice-north-korea/p38259 (accessed 25 January 2017); “Security cooperation in Northeast Asia: the North Korean nuclear issue and the way ahead,” U.S.-Korea Institute at the School of Advanced International Studies of Johns Hopkins University and the Hoover Institution at Stanford University, 2016, http://uskoreainstitute.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/10/Security-Cooperation-in-Northeast-Report_Final.pdf (accessed 15 January 2017).

  144. 144.

    Minseon Ku, “The role of identity in South Korea’s policies towards Japan,” Korean Social Science Journal 43:2 (2016); Sung Pyo Hong, “The effects of ‘apology-backlash’ recurrence on Korea–Japan relations,” Korean Social Science Journal 43:2 (2016).

Bibliography

  • Abdelal, Rawi, Yoshiko M. Herrera, Alastair Iain Johnston, and Rose McDermott (Eds.). (2009). Measuring identity: A guide for social scientists, Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Agov, Avram. (2013). North Korea’s alliances and the unfinished Korean War. Journal of Korean Studies, 18(2), 225–262.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Armstrong, Charles K. (2009). Socialism, sovereignty, and the North Korean exception. In S. Ryang (Ed.), North Korea: Toward a better understanding (pp. 41–56). Plymouth, UK: Lexington Books.

    Google Scholar 

  • Asan Institute. (2016). South Koreans and their neighbors. Asan Public Opinion Surveys. http://en.asaninst.org/contents/south-koreans-and-their-neighbors-2016. Accessed 25 January 2017.

  • Ballbach, Eric J. (2016). North Korea’s emerging nuclear state identity. The Korean Journal of International Studies, 14(3), 391–414.

    Google Scholar 

  • Boydston, Kent. (2017). Kim Jong-un’s 2017 new year’s address. Witness to Transformation blog. https://piie.com/blogs/north-korea-witness-transformation/kim-jong-uns-2017-new-years-address. Accessed 25 January 2017.

  • Campbell, Emma. (2016). South Korea’s new nationalism: The end of ‘one Korea’?. Boulder, CO: First Forum Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • CFR. (2016). A sharper choice on North Korea: Engaging China for a Stable Northeast Asia. Council on Foreign Relations Task Force Report No. 74. http://www.cfr.org/north-korea/sharper-choice-north-korea/p38259. Accessed 25 January 2017.

  • Cha, Victor D. (2016). The North Korea question. Asian Survey, 56(2), 243–269.

    Google Scholar 

  • Cho, Young Chul. (2011). North Korea’s nationalist discourse: A critical interpretation. Korea Observer, 42(2), 311–343.

    Google Scholar 

  • Chow, Jonathan T. (2017). North Korea’s participation in the universal periodic review of human rights. Australian Journal of International Affairs, 71(2), 146–163.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Chow, Jonathan T. and Leif-Eric Easley. (2016). Persuading pariahs: Myanmar’s strategic decision for reform and opening. Pacific Affairs, 89(3), 521–542.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Chung, Byung-Ho. (2009). Between defector and migrant: Identities and strategies of North Koreans in South Korea. Korean Studies, 32, 1–27.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Chung, Young Chul. (2008). The Suryŏng system as the institution of collectivist development. The Journal of Korean Studies, 12(1), 43–73.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Chung, Young-soon. (2011). Identity politics in the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (DPRK). The Review of Korean Studies, 14(3), 101–120.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Collins, Robert M. (2012). Marked for Life: Songbun, North Korea’s social classification system. Committee for Human Rights in North Korea.

    Google Scholar 

  • Connolly, William E. (2002). Identity/Difference: Democratic negotiations of political paradox, expanded edition. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Connor, Walker. (1994). Ethnonationalism: The quest for understanding. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Cossa, Ralph A. (2013). Planning for the future of the ROK-U.S. alliance: A joint vision for today and post-reunification. Korean Journal of Defense Analysis, 25(4), 519–529.

    Google Scholar 

  • Cumings, Bruce. (1997). Korea’s place in the Sun: A modern history. New York: W. W. Norton.

    Google Scholar 

  • Easley, Leif-Eric. (2012). Nationalist princes and patriotic publics: Machiavelli and Rousseau’s enduring insights on nationalism. The Korean Journal of International Studies, 10(1), 95–121.

    Google Scholar 

  • Easley, Leif-Eric. (2017). How proactive? How pacifist? Charting Japan’s evolving defence posture. Australian Journal of International Affairs, 71(1), 63–87.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Easley, Leif-Eric, and In Young Park. (2016). China’s norms in its near abroad: Understanding Beijing’s North Korea policy. Journal of Contemporary China, 25(101), 651–668.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Fahy, Sandra. (2015). Marching through Suffering: Loss and survival in North Korea. New York: Columbia University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Foster-Carter, Aidan. (2012). Keys to the Kimdom: North Korea’s economic heritage and prospects after Kim Jong-il’s death. Korea Economic Institute. http://www.keia.org/sites/default/files/publications/aps_foster-carter_0_0.pdf. Accessed 25 January 2017.

  • Funabashi, Yoichi. (2008). The Peninsula question: A chronicle of the second Korean nuclear crisis. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Gallup. (2014). North Korea least favorable among nations, February 19. http://www.gallup.com/poll/167489/north-korea-least-favorable-among-nations.aspx. Accessed 25 January 2017.

  • Gause, Ken E. (2014). North Korean leadership dynamics and decision-making under Kim Jong-un: A second year assessment. Alexandria, VA: Center for Naval Analyses.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Go, Myong-Hyun. (2016). The merits of conducting surveys inside North Korea. Beyond Parallel. http://beyondparallel.csis.org/the-merits-of-conducting-surveys-inside-north-korea. Accessed 25 January 2017.

  • Habib, Benjamin. (2011). North Korea’s nuclear weapons programme and the maintenance of the Songun system. The Pacific Review, 24(1), 43–64.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Haggard, Stephan and Marcus Noland. (2010). Witness to transformation: Refugee insights into North Korea. Washington, DC: Peterson Institute.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hagström, Linus, and Ulv Hanssen. (2015). The North Korean abduction issue: Emotions, securitisation and the reconstruction of Japanese identity from ‘aggressor’ to ‘victim’ and from ‘pacifist’ to ‘normal’. The Pacific Review, 28(1), 71–93.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Hajime, Izumi (伊豆見元). (2013). What is Happening in North Korea?: The philosophy of the Kim Jong-un regime (北朝鮮で何が起きているのか: 金正恩体制の実相), Tokyo: Chikuma Shinsho.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hong, Sung Pyo. (2016). The effects of ‘apology-backlash’ recurrence on Korea–Japan relations. Korean Social Science Journal, 43(2), 45–61.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Hu, Jintao. (2011). Letter to Kim Jong-il on the 50th Anniversary of Friendship Treaty. http://english.yonhapnews.co.kr/northkorea/2011/07/13/35/0401000000AEN20110713009500325F.html. Accessed 25 January 2017.

  • Hughes, Christopher W. (2009). “Super-sizing” the DPRK threat: Japan’s evolving military posture and North Korea. Asian Survey, 49(2), 291–311.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Hughes, Christopher W. (2013). Japan’s economic power and security: Japan and North Korea. New York: Routledge.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hymans, Jacques EC. (2008). Assessing North Korean nuclear intentions and capacities: A new approach. Journal of East Asian Studies, 8(2), 259–292.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Hyun, In Ae. (2015). Analyzing the structure of the North Korean leader myth and creating the Kim Jong Un myth. Journal of Peace and Unification, 5(1), 69–107.

    Google Scholar 

  • Isozaki, Atsuhito and Katsumi Sawada (礒崎敦仁, 澤田克己). (2017). Introduction to North Korea (北朝鮮入門 単行本), Tokyo: Toyo Keizai.

    Google Scholar 

  • Japan News Network. (2017). JNN public opinion poll (JNN 世論調査). April 29–30. http://news.tbs.co.jp/newsi_sp/yoron/backnumber/20170429/q3-1.html. Accessed 1 May 2017.

  • Jeon, Jae Ho (전재호). (2002). A comparative research of South and North Korea’s nationalism: On the focus of ‘the use of history’ (남북한 민족주의 비교연구). Korea and World Politics (한국과 국제 정치). 18(1), 135–166.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kang, David C. (2011). They think they’re normal: Enduring questions and new research on North Korea—A review essay. International Security, 36(3), 142–171.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Kang, Jin Woong. (2007). Historical changes in North Korean nationalism. North Korean Review, 3(1), 86–104.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Kang, Jin Woong. (2012). North Korea’s militant nationalism and people’s everyday lives: Past and present. Journal of Historical Sociology, 25(1), 1–30.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Kim, Bomi. (2016a). North Korea’s siege mentality: A sociopolitical analysis of the Kim Jong-un regime’s foreign policies. Asian Perspective, 40(2), 223–243.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kim, Jiyoon. (2014). National identity and attitudes toward North Korean defectors. In G. Rozman (Ed.), Asia’s slippery slope: Joint U.S.-Korea academic studies 25 (pp. 95–111). Washington, DC: Korea Economic Institute.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kim, Jong-un. (2016b). “Supreme Leader Kim Jong Un’s Report to the Seventh Congress of the Workers’ Party of Korea on the Work of the Central Committee,” KCNA transcript via the National Committee on North Korea. http://www.ncnk.org/resources/news-items/kim-jong-uns-speeches-and-public-statements-1/KJU_Speeches_7th_Congress.pdf. Accessed 25 January 2017.

  • Kim, Jong-un. (2017). “Annual New Year’s Address,” KCNA transcript via the National Committee on North Korea. http://www.ncnk.org/resources/news-items/kim-jong-uns-speeches-and-public-statements-1/kim-jong-uns-2017-new-years-address. Accessed 25 January 2017.

  • Kim, Sang Ki and Keun-sik Kim (김상기, 김근식). (2015). The prospects for North Korea’s international socialization: Participation in international organizations and changes in foreign policy preferences (북한의 국제적 사회와 전망: 국제기구 참여와 외교정책 선호의 변화, 1991–2005). Korean Journal of International Studies (국제정치논총), 55(2), 191–224.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kim, So Yeol. (2013a). Byungjin lives as Kim seeks guns and butter. Daily NK. http://www.dailynk.com/english/read.php?cataId=nk01700&num=10453. Accessed 25 January 2017.

  • Kim, Suk-Young. (2010). Illusive Utopia: Theater, film, and everyday performance in North Korea. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Kim, Tae-Hyo. (2013b). Game changer: North Korea under the Obama-Lee partnership and beyond. Korea Observer, 44(2), 289–314.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kim, Yongho. (2011). North Korean foreign policy: Security dilemma and succession. Plymouth, UK: Lexington Books.

    Google Scholar 

  • Korean Workers’ Party. (1964). A manual of the history of Korean workers’ party. Pyongyang: Korean Workers’ Party Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ku, Minseon. (2016). The role of identity in South Korea’s policies towards Japan. Korean Social Science Journal, 43(2), 75–94.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Kwon, Gibung. (2010). Recognition of estranged other—A theoretical reflection on politics of identity and systems integration in inter-Korean relations. The Korean Journal of International Studies, 50(3), 137–164.

    Google Scholar 

  • Lankov, Andrei. (2005). Crisis in North Korea: The failure of De-Stalinization, 1956. Honolulu, HI: University of Hawai’i Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Lee, Dong-bae. (2010). Portrayals of non-North Koreans in North Korean textbooks and the formation of national identity. Asian Studies Review, 34(3), 349–369.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Lee, HyunJoo (이현주). (2016). Collective identity of North Korea and social integration identity of future generations in Korean peninsula (북한의 집단정체성과 한반도미래세대 사회통합정체성). Journal of Asia-Pacific Studies (아태연구), 23(2), 277–310.

    Google Scholar 

  • Lee, Jeong Bok (이정복). (2011a). History and implications of the linguistic and cultural movements in North Korea (북한 언어문화 운동의 역사와 시사점). Korean Language and Literature Society (배달 말학회), 55, 159–191.

    Google Scholar 

  • Lee, Moo-Chul (이무철). (2011b). ‘North Korean human rights issues’ and the North Korean government’s viewpoint on human rights (‘북한 인권문제’와 북한의 인권관 - 인권에 대한 북한의 시각과 정책에 대한 비판적 평가). Review of North Korean Studies (현대북한연구), 14(1), 144–187.

    Google Scholar 

  • Lim, Jae-Cheon. (2015). Leader symbols and personality cult in North Korea. New York: Routledge.

    Google Scholar 

  • Liu, Ming. (2013). Changes and continuities in Pyongyang’s China policy. In K.A. Park, S. Snyder (Eds.), North Korea in transition: Politics, economy, and society (pp. 211–238). Lanham, Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield.

    Google Scholar 

  • McEachern, Patrick. (2010). Inside the red box: North Korea’s post-totalitarian politics. New York: Columbia University Press.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Moon, Chung-in, and Ildo Hwang. (2014). Identity, supreme dignity, and North Korea’s external behavior: A cultural/ideational perspective. Korea Observer, 45(1), 1–37.

    Google Scholar 

  • Michishita, Narushige. (2009). North Korea’s Military-Diplomatic Campaigns, 1966–2008. New York: Routledge.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ministry of Defense, Japan. (2016). Part I: Security environment surrounding Japan. Defense of Japan (Annual White Paper). http://www.mod.go.jp/e/publ/w_paper/pdf/2016/DOJ2016_1-1-1_web.pdf. Accessed 25 January 2017.

  • Ministry of Unification, Korea. (2012). Understanding North Korea. Seoul: Institute for Unification Education.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ministry of Unification, Korea. (2014). Understanding North Korea. Seoul: Institute for Unification Education.

    Google Scholar 

  • Motyl, Alexander J. (Ed.). (2000). Encyclopedia of nationalism. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Murooka, Tetsuo and Hiroyasu Akutsu. (2016). The Korean peninsula: North Korea’s advanced nuclear and missile capabilities, and South Korea’s response. In East Asian strategic review (pp. 77–108). Tokyo: National Institute for Defense Studies.

    Google Scholar 

  • Myers, B. R. (2011). North Korea’s state-loyalty advantage. Journal of International Affairs, 65(1), 115–129.

    Google Scholar 

  • Nasr, Mary. (2012). The development of nationalism in North Korea. World Congress of Korean Studies. http://congress.aks.ac.kr/korean/files/2_1357624894.pdf. Accessed 25 January 2017.

  • Okonogi, Masao, Junya Nishino, and Chung-in Moon (Eds.) (小此木 政夫,西野 純也,文正仁). (2012). East Asia and North Korea Problems at the Turning Point (転換期の東アジアと北朝鮮問題), Tokyo: Keio University.

    Google Scholar 

  • Park, Han S. (2000). North Korean perceptions of self and others: Implications for policy choices. Pacific Affairs, 73(4), 503–516.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Park, Sungkwan. (2003). Continuity and change in North Korean foreign policy toward Southeast Asia. The Korean Journal of International Studies, 43(3), 235–253.

    Google Scholar 

  • Pempel, T. J. (2013). The economy-security nexus in Northeast Asia. New York: Routledge.

    Google Scholar 

  • Perlez, Jane and Sang-hun Choe. (2016). China struggles for balance in response to North Korea’s boldness. New York Times, February 7.

    Google Scholar 

  • Pollack, Jonathan D. (2011). No exit: North Korea, Nuclear weapons, and international security, International Institute for Strategic Studies Adelphi Papers, 418–419.

    Google Scholar 

  • Pyongyang Times. (2001). Kim Jong-il’s Work ‘On the Juche Idea’: The socio-historical principles of the Juche Idea, June 2.

    Google Scholar 

  • Revere, Evans J. R. (2013). Facing the facts: Towards a new U.S. North Korea policy. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution. https://www.brookings.edu/wp-content/uploads/2016/06/16-north-korea-denuclearization-revere-paper.pdf. Accessed 25 January 2017.

  • Ren, Xiao. (2015). Toward a normal State-To-State relationship?: China and the DPRK in changing Northeast Asia. North Korean Review, 11(2), 63–78.

    Google Scholar 

  • Roy, Denny. (1994). North Korea and the madman theory. Security Dialogue, 25(3), 307–316.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Rozman, Gilbert. (2004). Northeast Asia’s Stunted Regionalism: Bilateral distrust in the shadow of globalization. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Rozman, Gilbert. (2011). Strategic thinking about the Korean Nuclear Crisis: Four parties caught between North Korea and the United States. New York: Palgrave.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Sakai, Takashi and Shunji Hiraiwa (坂井隆, 平岩俊司). (2017). Dictatorship: North Korea’s true nature (独裁国家:北朝鮮の実像), Tokyo: Asahi Publishing.

    Google Scholar 

  • Sakata, Yasuyo (阪田恭代). (2016). U.S. Asia-Pacific Rebalance and the U.S.-ROK Alliance (米国のアジ ア太平洋リバランス政策と米韓同盟). Journal of International Security (国際安全保障), 44(1), 49–63.

    Google Scholar 

  • Samuels, Richard J. (2010). Kidnapping politics in East Asia. Journal of East Asian Studies, 10(3), 363–395.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Sato, Haigo. (2009). A Japanese perspective on North Korea: Troubled bilateral relations in a complex multilateral framework. International Journal of Korean Unification Studies, 18(1), 54–92.

    Google Scholar 

  • Scobell, Andrew. (2004). China and North Korea: From Comrades-In-Arms to Allies at Arm’s Length. Carlisle, PA: Strategic Studies Institute, U.S. Army War College.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Shi, Yongming. (2011). Pyongyang’s path to prosperity: North Korea ponders a shift of strategic focus to economic development. Beijing Review 24.

    Google Scholar 

  • Shin, Gi-Wook. (2006). Ethnic Nationalism in Korea: Genealogy, politics, and legacy. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Shin, Wookhee. (2016). Second image reconsidered: Quest for unit complexity in Northeast Asia. Korean Social Science Journal, 43(2), 63–73.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Shirk, Susan. (2012). The Northeast Asia cooperation dialogue. In T.J. Pempel and Chung-Min Lee (Eds.), Security cooperation in Northeast Asia: Architecture and beyond (pp. 193–211). New York: Routledge.

    Google Scholar 

  • Smith, Anthony D. (1991). National identity. Reno, NV: University of Nevada Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Smith, Sheila A. (2013). North Korea in Japan’s strategic thinking. Asan Forum. http://www.theasanforum.org/north-korea-in-japans-strategic-thinking. Accessed 25 January 2017.

  • Snyder, Scott. (1999). Negotiating on the edge: North Korean negotiating behavior. Washington, DC: U.S. Institute of Peace Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Snyder, Scott and Leif-Eric Easley. (2014). South Korea’s foreign relations and security policies. In S. Pekkanen, J. Ravenhill and R. Foot (Eds.), The Oxford Handbook of the international relations of Asia (pp. 446–461). New York: Oxford University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Son, Key-young. (2007). Entrenching ‘identity norms’ of tolerance and engagement: Lessons from rapprochement between North and South Korea. Review of International Studies, 33(3), 489–509.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Song, Jiyoung. (2010). The right to survival in the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea. European Journal of East Asian Studies, 9(1), 87–117.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Song, Seung-Hwan (송승환). (2004). Our nation-first conception and national reunification (우리 민족주의와 조국통일). Pyongyang: Pyongyang Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Suh, Jae-Jung. (2007). Introduction: Making sense of North Korea: Institutionalizing juche at the nexus of self and other. Journal of Korean Studies, 12(1), 1–13.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Suh, Jae-Jung. (2013). Origins of North Korea’s Juche: Colonialism, war, and development. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.

    Google Scholar 

  • USKI. (2016). Security cooperation in Northeast Asia: The North Korean nuclear issue and the way ahead. U.S.-Korea Institute at SAIS and the Hoover Institution. http://uskoreainstitute.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/10/Security-Cooperation-in-Northeast-Report_Final.pdf. Accessed 15 January 2017.

  • von Hippel, David, Scott Bruce, and Peter Hayes. (2011). Transforming the DPRK through energy sector development. 38 North, Washington, DC: U.S.-Korea Institute at SAIS, 1–9.

    Google Scholar 

  • Wu, Anne. (2005). What China whispers to North Korea. Washington Quarterly, 28(2), 35–48.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Yang, Sung Chu. (2001). Understanding the North Korean political framework. In S.H. Kil and C.I. Moon (Eds.), Understanding Korean Politics: An introduction (pp. 269–307). Albany: State University of New York Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Yoon, Cheol Gee (윤철기). (2016). Change of class-system and working-class’ ideological identity after marketization in North Korea (북한 시장화 이후 계급체계와 노동계급의 이데올로기적 정체성 변화). Review of North Korean Studies (현대북한연구), 19(2), 155–189.

    Google Scholar 

  • Zhu, Feng. (2010). Shifting tides: China and North Korea. In R. Huiisken (Ed.), The Architecture of security in the Asia-Pacific (pp. 45–57). Canberra: Australian National University Press.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Leif-Eric Easley .

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

Copyright information

© 2019 The Author(s)

About this chapter

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this chapter

Easley, LE. (2019). North Korean Identity as a Challenge to East Asia’s Regional Order. In: Sohn, Y., Pempel, T. (eds) Japan and Asia’s Contested Order. Asia Today. Palgrave Macmillan, Singapore. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-13-0256-5_6

Download citation