An Optimized Five-Layer Model with Rainfall Effects for Wireless Propagation in Forests

  • Mohammed Saleh H. Al SalamehEmail author
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering book series (LNEE, volume 500)


This paper presents a new propagation model for evaluating the fading of wireless communication signals in forests. The model considers rainfall and snowfall effects, and allows for the estimation of attenuation at varying frequencies in the VHF/UHF bands that are used by cognitive radios. The structure of the vegetation environment is represented here by five material layers, namely soil, scrubs and small plants under the trees, trunks of trees, foliage of trees, and free space. The model parameters are optimized using the least squares technique. The resulting model is verified by comparison with measured data where acceptable agreement is observed. The average rain rate R0.01% that will probably be exceeded for at most 0.01% of the year is computed using real measured data in Jordan. R0.01% is found to be 22.9 mm/h which agrees with the ITU recommended value of 22 mm/h.


Least squares Rain Forest Propagation Wireless Measurements 



The author would like to thank Jordan University of Science & Technology and the American University of Madaba for their continuous support.


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© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Electrical EngineeringAmerican University of MadabaMadabaJordan

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