Data Innovation for Policymaking in Indonesia
Digital services and the big data they generate are changing the research and policy landscape in profound ways. In Indonesia, the near ubiquity of mobile phones, improvements in connectivity and coverage and the availability of new and cheaper technologies are providing policy researchers and policy makers with access to new sources of real-time information and new tools to understand social and economic trends. These developments have the potential to change the way policy makers source and use evidence to inform policymaking. This chapter examines the implications of these new technologies for policymaking, especially data innovation, which is defined as the use of new or nontraditional data sources and methods. Drawing on examples from ongoing pilot initiatives on how data innovation is being used – and could be used – in policy research and policymaking in Indonesia, the authors explore factors that shape the policy uptake of data tools by government stakeholders. The chapter argues that although advanced data analytics (defined as the systematic computational analysis of data) and data visualisation help to make sense of new data sources and to attract policy makers to some of these initiatives, actual uptake and adoption is more likely to depend on political factors. These factors include the relevance of insights to a current policy issue, the availability of resources and capacity to adopt the data tools, access to the data sources required to feed the analytics and the presence of political imperatives.
KeywordsBig data Data innovation Data revolution Data analytics Policymaking Evidence-informed policymaking Policymaking Indonesia
- Anderson, C. (2008). The end of theory: The data deluge makes the scientific method obsolete. Science. https://www.wired.com/2008/06/pb-theory/. Accessed 10 Apr 2017.
- Andrews, M., Pritchett, L., & Woolcock, M. (2012). Escaping capability traps through problem-driven iterative adaptation (PDIA) (CGD Working Paper 299). Washington, DC: Center for Global Development. http://www.cgdev.org/content/publications/detail/1426292. Accessed 25 Mar 2017.
- Andrews, M., Pritchett, L., & Woolcock, M. (2015). Doing problem-driven work (CID Working Paper 307). Boston: Center for International Development, Harvard University. https://bsc.cid.harvard.edu/files/bsc/files/doing_problem_driven_work_wp_307.pdf. Accessed 16 Apr 2017.
- Benoit, K., & Cukier, K. (2015). The challenge of big data for the social sciences. Public Lecture. London School of Economics. http://goo.gl/Rmi56P. Accessed 12 Apr 2017.
- Bollier, D. (2010). The promise and peril of big data. Washington, DC: The Aspen Institute. https://www.emc.com/collateral/analyst-reports/10334-ar-promise-peril-of-big-data.pdf. Accessed 19 Apr 2017.
- Das, K., Gryseels, M., Sudhir, P., & Tan, K. T. (2016). Unlocking Indonesia’s digital opportunity. Jakarta: McKinsey Indonesia Office. http://www.mckinsey.com/~/media/McKinsey%20Offices/Indonesia/PDF/Unlocking-Indonesias-digital-opportunity.ashx. Accessed 20 Nov 2016.
- Davies, W. (2017, January 19). How statistics lost their power – And why we should fear what comes next. The Guardian. https://www.theguardian.com/politics/2017/jan/19/crisis-of-statistics-big-data-democracy. Accessed 18 Apr 2017.
- Floodtags. (2017). Real-time flood mapping on basis of twitter and DEM. Floodtags. http://floodtags.com.webhosting109.transurl.nl/blog/2015/10/02/twitter-used-to-crete-real-time-flood-maps. Accessed 18 Apr 2017.
- Grazella, M. (2013). Facebook has 64m active Indonesian users. The Jakarta Post, June 18. http://www.thejakartapost.com/news/2013/06/18/facebook-has-64m-active-indonesian-users.html. Accessed 22 April 2017.
- Harford, T. (2014, March 28). Big data: Are we making a big mistake? The Financial Times. https://www.ft.com/content/21a6e7d8-b479-11e3-a09a-00144feabdc0. Accessed 18 Apr 2017.
- IEAGDRSD [Independent Expert Advisory Group on a Data Revolution for Sustainable Development]. (2014). A world that counts: Mobilizing the data revolution for sustainable development. New York: United Nations. http://www.undatarevolution.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/11/A-World-That-Counts.pdf. Accessed 26 Mar 2017.
- Internet Live Stats. (2017). http://www.internetlivestats.com/internet-users/. Accessed 26 Apr 2017.
- Johnson, P. (2013). Six Twitter statistics that you may not know. ITWorld. http://www.itworld.com/article/2833036/big-data/6-twitter-statistics-that-you-may-not-know.html. Accessed 22 Apr 2017.
- Kemp, S. (2017). Digital in Southeast Asia in 2017: Regional overview. We Are Social Blog. https://wearesocial.com/blog/2017/02/digital-southeast-asia-2017. Accessed 18 Apr 2017.
- Khoso, M. (2016). How much data is produced every day? Northeastern University Level blog. http://www.northeastern.edu/levelblog/2016/05/13/how-much-data-produced-every-day/. Accessed 4 Apr 2017.
- Lips, M., & Mansell, J. (2015). Lessons from the New Zealand Data Futures Forum: How to unlock the value of data-driven innovation and new ‘evidence’ in policy-making (Working Paper 5). Jakarta: Knowledge Sector Initiative. http://www.ksi-indonesia.org/files/1447136024$1$6A28V8B$.pdf. Accessed 2 Apr 2017.
- Margetts, H. (2013). The promises and threats of big data for public policy-making. The Policy and Internet Blog October 28. http://blogs.oii.ox.ac.uk/policy/promises-threats-big-data-for-public-policy-making/. Accessed 28 Apr 2017.
- Netralnews. (2017). Indonesia’s move to count on mobile positioning data lauded by UN world tourism. Netralnews. http://www.en.netralnews.com/news/culture/read/3093/indonesia...s.move.to.count.on.mobile.positioning.data.lauded.by.un.world.tourism. Accessed 25 Apr 2017.
- New Zealand Data Futures Forum. (2014a). New Zealand’s data future. https://www.nzdatafutures.org.nz/discussion-documents. Accessed 10 Apr 2017.
- New Zealand Data Futures Forum. (2014b). Navigating the data future: Four guiding principles. https://www.nzdatafutures.org.nz/discussion-documents. Accessed 10 Apr 2017.
- OECD [Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development]. (2013). Development co-operation report. Paris: OECD. http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/development/development-co-operation-report-2013/numbers-of-people-living-under-usd-1-25-per-day-1990-2010_dcr-2013-graph6-en#page1. Accessed 25 Apr 2017.
- Pulse Lab Jakarta. (2016a). Six monthly report January–June 2016. Jakarta: United Nations.Google Scholar
- Pulse Lab Jakarta. (2016b). Annual report. Jakarta: United Nations.Google Scholar
- Royal Society. (2017). Machine learning. https://royalsociety.org/topics-policy/projects/machine-learning. Accessed 2 May 2017.
- Sadowski, M. (2017). Social media statistics for Indonesia. Social Memos. http://socialmemos.com/social-media-statistics-for-indonesia. Accessed 23 Apr 2017.
- Shaxson, L. (2016). Lessons for building and managing an evidence base for policy (Working Paper 10). Jakarta: Knowledge Sector Initiative. http://www.ksi-indonesia.org/en/news/detail/lessons-for-building-and-managing-an-evidence-base-for-policy. Accessed 5 Apr 2017.
- Statista. (2017). Number of mobile phone users in Indonesia from 2013 to 2019. Statista. http://www.statista.com/statistics/274659/forecast-of-mobile-phone-users-in-indonesia/. Accessed 20 Apr 2017.
- Stuart, E., Samman, E. Avis, W., & Berliner, T. (2015). The data revolution: Finding the missing millions. Report. London: Overseas Development Institute. https://www.odi.org/publications/9476-data-revolution-finding-missing-millions. Accessed 10 Apr 2017.
- Timmer, J. (2008). Why the cloud cannot obscure the scientific method. Ars Technica, June 25. https://arstechnica.com/uncategorized/2008/06/why-the-cloud-cannot-obscure-the-scientific-method/. Accessed 12 Apr 2017.
- UNESCO [United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization]. (2010). Education for all monitoring report: Reaching the marginalised. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- United Nations. (2017). Sustainable development goals. http://www.un.org/sustainabledevelopment/sustainable-development-goals. Accessed 25 Mar 2017.
- United Nations Global Pulse. (2012). Big data for development: Challenges & opportunities. New York: United Nations Global Pulse. http://www.unglobalpulse.org/sites/default/files/BigDataforDevelopment-UNGlobalPulseJune2012.pdf. Accessed 5 Apr 2017.
- United Nations Global Pulse. (2015). Global pulse annual report. New York: United Nations. http://unglobalpulse.org/sites/default/files/Global%20Pulse%202015%20Annual%20Report_final%20spreads.pdf. Accessed 4 Apr 2017.
- United Nations Global Pulse. (2016). Integrating big data into the monitoring and evaluation of development programmes. New York: United Nations Global Pulse. http://unglobalpulse.org/sites/default/files/IntegratingBigData_intoMEDP_web_UNGP.pdf. Accessed 18 Apr 2017.
- United Nations Global Pulse. (2017). United Nations global pulse. New York: United Nations. http://www.unglobalpulse.org/about-new. Accessed 28 Mar 2017.
- Usher, D., & Rahwidiati, D. (2017, March 10). Navigating Indonesia’s data innovation ecosystem: A reflection. Nesta Blogs. http://www.nesta.org.uk/blog/navigating-indonesias-data-innovation-ecosystem-reflection. Accessed 12 Mar 2017.
- World Bank and World Health Organization. (2014). Global civil registration and vital statistics: Scaling up investment plan 2015–2024. World Bank: Washington, DC.Google Scholar
- Young, J., & Mendizabal, E. (2009). Helping researchers become policy entrepreneurs (Briefing Paper 53). London: Overseas Development Institute. https://www.odi.org/sites/odi.org.uk/files/odi-assets/publications-opinion-files/1730.pdf. Accessed 20 April 2017.