Chemical and Geotechnical Properties of Red Mud at Liulin, China

  • Jin Li
  • Shi-Jin Feng
  • Hong-Xin Chen
  • Hongtao Wang
Conference paper


Disposal and storage of red mud are essential concerns due to its huge volume and high alkalinity, and understanding its properties is the basis to mitigate the risk. In this study, the chemical and geotechnical properties of red mud at Liulin, Shanxi Province, China were comprehensively investigated. The major mineral compositions were katoite, andradite, hematite, anorthite, periclase, sodalite, paravauxite, and magnesite. SiO2 (20.76%), Al2O3 (20.40%), CaO (17.56%), Na2O (17.33%), CO3 (12.87%), Fe2O3 (6.44%) accounted for 95.36% of red mud. The content of Fe2O3 (6.44%) was substantially lower than that in other areas. Diameter of the red mud particles was in the range of 0.008–300 μm and 97% of the particles was silt and clay. The specific gravity, density, water content, hydraulic conductivity of the red mud were 2.77, 1.70 g/cm3, 50.15% and 4.5 × 10−6 cm/s, respectively. The liquid limit, plastic limit and plasticity index were 64, 42, and 22, respectively. The ranges of friction angle and cohesion were 28.7–33.1° and 7.8–35 kPa, respectively, and both of them decreased as water content increasing from 50% to 65%. The results in this study are very useful for the design and operation of red mud stack and utilization of red mud in China.


Bauxite Slope stability Grain size distribution Direct shear test Shear strength 



The authors would like to thank the staff of Senze Red Mud Stack for their assistance in sampling. The majority of the work described in this paper was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos. 41602288 and 41572265, the Newton Advanced Fellowship of the Royal Society, and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities under Grant No. 2016KJ027. The authors would like to acknowledge all these sources of financial support and express the most sincere gratitude.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jin Li
    • 1
  • Shi-Jin Feng
    • 1
  • Hong-Xin Chen
    • 1
  • Hongtao Wang
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Geotechnical EngineeringTongji UniversityShanghaiChina
  2. 2.College of Environmental Science and EngineeringTongji UniversityShanghaiChina

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