Advertisement

Incorporating the Effect of Pore Pressure in Undrained DEM Simulations

  • Joel Keishing
  • Kevin J. Hanley
Conference paper

Abstract

Liquefaction in undrained soils coincides with the development of significant excess pore water pressures. The undrained behaviour of soils has been studied extensively using laboratory testing, but these tests cannot give any insight into the micromechanical changes that cause the observed macro-scale response. One way to obtain insight into the micromechanical behaviour is to use a suitable numerical technique such as the discrete element method (DEM). The ‘constant volume’ method, in which the sample volume is maintained constant throughout shearing, is often used to simulate the undrained test condition. In this method the soil sample is assumed to be perfectly saturated with an incompressible liquid. The constant volume method has the advantage of computational simplicity. However, some problems arise when simulating dense samples such as the generation of unrealistically high stresses and excessively large interparticle overlaps. There is a clear need to develop an alternative to constant volume simulations which retains the method’s computational efficiency but without the unphysicality. In this paper, several reasons are proposed for the inability of constant volume simulations to quantitatively capture a real soil’s undrained behaviour. Alternatives to the constant volume method are discussed, all of which allow the sample volume to vary during the simulation by incorporating the effect of pore pressure. One method was selected and implemented in the open-source LAMMPS DEM code, and its appropriateness for simulating undrained soil behaviour is explored with reference to monotonic simulations of sand.

Keywords

Discrete element method Constant volume Pore water pressure 

References

  1. 1.
    Bishop, A.W.: The influence of an undrained change in stress on the pore pressure in porous media of low compressibility. Géotechnique 23(3), 435–442 (1973)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bishop, A.W.: Undrained triaxial tests on saturated sand and their significance in the general theory of shear strength. Géotechnique 2(1), 13–32 (1950)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Hanley, K.J., Huang, X., O’Sullivan, C., Kwok, F.: Challenges of simulating undrained tests using the constant volume method in DEM. In: AIP Conference Proceedings, vol. 1542, pp. 277–280, Powders and Grains 2013, Sydney, Australia (2013)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Potyondy, D.O., Cundall, P.A.: A bonded-particle model for rock. Int. J. Rock Mech. Min. 41(8), 1329–1364 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Plimpton, S.: Fast parallel algorithms for short-range molecular dynamics. J. Comput. Phys. 117, 1–19 (1995)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Cundall, P.A., Strack, O.D.L.: A discrete numerical model for granular assemblies. Géotechnique 29(1), 47–65 (1979)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Yimsiri, S., Soga, K.: DEM analysis of soil fabric effects on behaviour of soil. Géotechnique 60(6), 483–495 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Skempton, A.W.: The pore pressure coefficients A and B. Géotechnique 4(4), 143–147 (1954)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Stanley, J.J., Yu, S.J.: Tables for determining isotropic and anisotropic shear strengths from consolidated undrained triaxial compression tests. U.S. Army Engineer waterways experiment station, paper S-76-2 (1976)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Yang, J.: Pore pressure coefficient for soil and rock and its relation to compressional wave velocity. Géotechnique 55(3), 251–256 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Itasca Consulting Group: PFC3D Version 4.0 User Manual. Itasca Consulting Group, Minneapolis, MN, USA (2007)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Aghakouchak, A.: Advanced laboratory studies to explore the axial cyclic behaviour of driven piles. Ph.D. thesis, University of London (Imperial College), UK (2015)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Hanley, K.J., Huang, X., O’Sullivan, C., Kwok, F.C.-Y.: Temporal variation of contact networks in granular materials. Granul. Matter 16(1), 41–54 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Lopera Perez, J.C., Kwok, C.Y., O’Sullivan, C., Huang, X., Hanley, K.J.: Assessing the quasi-static conditions for shearing in granular media within the critical state soil mechanics framework. Soils Found. 56(1), 152–159 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Engineering, Institute for Infrastructure and EnvironmentThe University of EdinburghEdinburghUK

Personalised recommendations