Structures and Properties of Near-Rapidly Solidified Fe–12Mn–9Al–1.2C Dual-Phase Lightweight Steel Containing 3 wt% Ni

  • Jianlei Zhang
  • Wei He
  • Yang Yang
  • Yunhu Zhang
  • Lian Duan
  • Zhiping Luo
  • Changjiang Song
  • Qijie Zhai
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering book series (LNME)


Fe–Mn–Al–C lightweight steel possesses not only excellent comprehensive mechanical properties, but also a low density, which is attractive to the automotive industry. In the present paper, an austenite stabilizer Ni element which usually increases the austenite content was added and its effects on the structure and mechanical properties of a near-rapidly solidified Fe–12Mn–9Al–1.2C dual-phase lightweight steel strip were studied. It was found that the addition of 3% Ni did not show the potential to increase the austenite content or enhance the mechanical properties of Fe–12Mn–9Al–1.2C dual-phase lightweight steel strip. Moreover, the addition of 3% Ni deteriorated the thermal stability of Fe–12Mn–9Al–1.2C steel. In the strip with the addition of Ni, the formed metastable austenite almost fully transformed into ferrite + κ-carbide at a lower annealing temperature. The formation process of constituent phase in this near-rapidly solidified dual-phase lightweight steel was analyzed. The related results suggested that the constituent phases of the near-rapidly solidified dual-phase lightweight steel depended on the liquid/solid transition, which was controlled by both thermodynamics and kinetics factors.


Near-rapid solidification Mechanical property Microstructure Dual-phase lightweight steel Ni element 



This work was financially supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 51574162) and Joint Fund of Iron and Steel Research (No. U1660103). The authors would like to express sincere thanks for the support staff at the Instrumental Analysis & Research Center at Shanghai University and the Center for Advanced Solidification Technology.


  1. 1.
    D.W. Suh, N.J. Kim, Low-density steels. Scr. Mater. 68(6), 337–338 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    J. Hirsch, Recent development in aluminium for automotive applications. Trans. Nonferrous Met. Soc. China 24(7), 1995–2002 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    L. Zhang, R. Song, C. Zhao et al., Work hardening behavior involving the substructural evolution of an austenite–ferrite Fe–Mn–Al–C steel. Mater. Sci. Eng., A 640, 225–234 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Y. Sutou, N. Kamiya, R. Umino et al., High-strength Fe–20Mn–Al–C-based alloys with low density. ISIJ Int. 50(6), 893–899 (2010)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    I. Zuazo, B. Hallstedt, B. Lindahl et al., Low-density steels: complex metallurgy for automotive applications. JOM 66(9), 1747–1758 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    H. Kim, D.W. Suh, N.J. Kim, Fe–Al–Mn–C low-density structural alloys: a review on the microstructures and mechanical properties. Sci. Technol. Adv. Mater. 14(1), 014205 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    J. Krajnik, K. Wojciechowski, B. Perzyna et al., Tensile deformation of a low density Fe–27Mn–12Al–0.8C duplex steel in association with ordered phases at ambient temperature. Mater. Sci. Eng., A 586(6), 276–283 (2013)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    C.J. Wang, J.W. Lee, T.H. Twu, Corrosion behaviors of low carbon steel, SUS310 and Fe–Mn–Al alloy with hot-dipped aluminum coatings in NaCl-induced hot corrosion. Surf. Coat. Technol. 163–164(02), 37–43 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    W.J. Lu, X.F. Zhang, R.S. Qin, κ-carbide hardening in a low-density high-Al high-Mn multiphase steel. Mater. Lett. 138, 96–99 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    C.J. Wang, Y.C. Chang, NaCl-induced hot corrosion of Fe–Mn–Al–C alloys. Mater. Chem. Phys. 76(2), 151–161 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    C.F. Huang, K.L. Ou, C.S. Chen et al., Research of phase transformation on Fe–8.7Al–28.3Mn–1C–5.5Cr alloy. J. Alloy. Compd. 488(1), 246–249 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    L. Liu, C. Li, Y. Yang et al., A simple method to produce austenite-based low-density Fe–20Mn–9Al–0.75C steel by a near-rapid solidification process. Mater. Sci. Eng., A 679, 282–291 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    C.C. Wu, J.S. Chou, T.F. Liu, Phase transformation in an Fe-10.1Al-28.6Mn-0.46C alloy. Metall. Mater. Trans. A 22(10), 2265–2276 (1991)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    R. Rana, C. Liu, Effects of ceramic particles and composition on elastic modulus of low density steels for automotive applications. Can. Metall. Q. 53(3), 300–316 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    C.Y. Chao, C.H. Liu, Effects of Mn contents on the microstructure and mechanical properties of the Fe-10Al-xMn-1.0C alloy. Mater. Trans. 43(10), 2635–2642 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Y.Y. Wang, X. Sun, Y.D. Wang et al., Effects of Mn content on the deformation behavior of Fe–Mn–Al–C TWIP steels—a computational study. J. Eng. Mater. Technol. 137(2), 021001 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    S.H. Kim, H. Kim, N.J. Kim, Brittle intermetallic compound makes ultrastrong low-density steel with large ductility. Nature 518(7537), 77–79 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    J.I. Kim, C.K. Syn, J.W. Morris, Microstructural sources of toughness in QLT-Treated 5.5Ni cryogenic steel. Metall. Trans. A 14(1), 93–103 (1983)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    B. Fultz, J.W. Morris, A Mössbauer spectrometry study of the mechanical transformation of precipitated austenite in 6Ni steel. Metall. Mater. Trans. A 16(1), 173–177 (1985)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    H.J. Kim, Y.H. Kim, J.W. Morris, Thermal mechanisms of grain and packet refinement in a lath martensitic steel. ISIJ Int. 38(11), 1277–1285 (2007) Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    M. Niikura, J.W. Morris, Thermal processing of ferritic 5Mn steel for toughness at cryogenic temperatures. Metall. Trans. A 11(9), 1531–1540 (1980)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    S.W. Hwang, J.H. Ji, E.G. Lee, K.-T. Park, Tensile deformation of a duplex Fe–20Mn–9Al–0.6C steel having the reduced specific weight. Mater. Sci. Eng., A 528(15), 5196–5203 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    N. Zhu, Q. Wu, Y. He et al., Effect of Ni on the stability of retained austenite and mechanical properties for TRIP steels containing vanadium. Steel Res. Int. 85(2), 143–154 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jianlei Zhang
    • 1
  • Wei He
    • 1
  • Yang Yang
    • 1
  • Yunhu Zhang
    • 1
  • Lian Duan
    • 1
  • Zhiping Luo
    • 2
  • Changjiang Song
    • 1
  • Qijie Zhai
    • 1
  1. 1.State Key Laboratory of Advanced Special Steel, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Advanced Ferrometallurgy and School of Materials Science and EngineeringShanghai UniversityShanghaiChina
  2. 2.Department of Chemistry and PhysicsFayetteville State UniversityFayettevilleUSA

Personalised recommendations