The Circular Economy as a Model to Implement the Historic Urban Landscape Approach: Which Integrated Evaluation Method?

  • Mariarosaria AngrisanoEmail author
  • Luigi Fusco Girard
Part of the Creativity, Heritage and the City book series (CHC, volume 2)


The UNESCO Recommendations on Historic Urban Landscape (2011) recognises the fundamental role of cultural heritage and landscape for sustainable local development.

The operative tool available for the assessment of the impacts of requalification projects on historic urban landscape is the heritage impact assessment (HIA).

In this research, HIA has been applied to evaluate the impacts of a requalification project for Torre Annunziata waterfront. The aim is to demonstrate that this method is a fundamental tool to understand the impacts on the integrity and authenticity of heritage resources, but not enough to define the tangible and intangible values of the cultural heritage, that assume different features in the different international urban areas. This tool lacks an economic and social perspective and a certain evaluation of the impacts for different planning strategies.

In this paper, a new tool has been proposed to assess the economic and social impacts of cultural heritage conservation/transformation/regeneration, allowing interdisciplinary research and collaboration among stakeholders, capable of defining some guidelines to improve requalification projects in a win-win perspective.

The results of this new method have been used to define a new project for Torre Annunziata waterfront based on the principles of the “circular economy”. Subsequently some key indicators have been identified to measure the economic, social and environmental performance of the project.

The circular economy is capable of restoring the city’s identity and increasing the tangible and intangible value, according to the UNESCO recommendations.


Circular economy Participative method Waterfront regeneration Historic urban landscape Cultural heritage Maritime identity Sustainable planning Heritage impact assessment 


  1. Angrisano, M. (2015). Economic heritage impact assessment as a tool for evaluating the impacts on the great requalification project of the coastal cities, UNESCO sites. The case study of Torre Annunziata, in the gulf of Naples. Territorio Italia, 2015(2), 71–94.Google Scholar
  2. Angrisano, M., Biancamano, P. F., Bosone, M., Carone, P., Daldanise, G., De Rosa, F., Franciosa, A., Gravagnuolo, A., Iodice, S., Nocca, F., Onesti, A., Panaro, S., Ragozino, S., Sannicandro, V., & Fusco Girard, L. (2016). Towards operationalizing UNESCO recommendations on “Historic Urban Landscape”: A position paper. In Aestimum.Google Scholar
  3. Angrisano, M., Fusco Girard, L. (2017). The circular economy approach for the regeneration of Torre Annunziata port area (pp 11–22). In BDC Bollettino del Centro Calza Bini, n.1.Google Scholar
  4. Appendino, F., Giliberto, F., & Labadi, S. (2016). Il ruolo delle valutazioni di Impatto Ambientale e di impatto sul Patrimonio Culturale: il caso Liverpool sito UNESCO. InValori e valutazioni n. 17 (pp. 57–57).Google Scholar
  5. Calder, A., Jones, A., Roe, A. (2014). Cultural heritage impact assessment. East riding of Yorkshire council. East Riding of Yorkshire Council.Google Scholar
  6. De Figueiredo, P.(2011). Liverpool waters heritage impact assessment. Assessment of potential effects on the Liverpool World Heritage Sites. www.liverpoolwaters.
  7. Ellen MacArthur Foundation (2016). Growth within: A circular economy vision for a competitive Europe. Google Scholar
  8. Ezzat, A. M. (2016). Sustainable development of seaport cities through circular economy: A comparative study with implications to Suez Canal corridor project. European Journal of Sustainable Development, 5.Google Scholar
  9. European Commission (2014). Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions – Towards an integrated approach to cultural heritage for Europe, COM 477 final, Brussels, 22.7.2014.Google Scholar
  10. Fellner, J, Lederer, J., Scharff, C., Laner, D. (2017). Present potentials and limitations of a circular economy with respect to primary raw material demand. Available at:
  11. Furrer, B. (2013). Report on the ICOMOS advisory mission to historic centre of Warsaw. The Historic Centre of Warsaw (Poland) Advisory Mission, Report.Google Scholar
  12. Fusco Girard, L. (2010). Sustainability, creativity, resilience: Toward new development strategies of port areas through evaluation processes. International Journal of Sustainable Development, 13(1).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Fusco Girard, L. (2014). The role of cultural urban landscape towards a new urban economics: New structural assets for increasing economic productivity through hybrid processes. HOPUE, 1(1), 3–27.Google Scholar
  14. Fusco Girard, L., & Nijkamp, P. (2003). Le valutazioni per lo sviluppo sostenibile della città e del territorio. Milano: Franco Angeli.Google Scholar
  15. Gravagnuolo, A., & Angrisano, M. (2013). Assessment of urban attractiveness of port cities in southern Italy—A case study of Torre Annunziata. Sustainability, 5(9), 3906–3925.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Gravagnuolo, A., & Fusco Girard, L. (2017). Multicriteria tools for the implementation of historic urban landscape. Qual Innov Prosper, 21, 186–201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Gravagnuolo, A., Biancamano, P. F., Angrisano, M., & Cancelliere, A. (2015). Assessment of waterfront attractiveness in port cities – Facebook 4 urban facelifts. J Glob Environ Issues, 14, 56–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. HABITAT III (2017). United Nations New Urban Agenda: Adopted by the UN general assembly, 25 January 2017, New York, USA.Google Scholar
  19. Hidalgo, A., & Guhl, A. (2015). On the circular economy of greater Paris. In: Direction regional Ile De France.Google Scholar
  20. ICOMOS. (2011). Guidance on heritage impact assessments for cultural world heritage properties. Paris: ICOMOS.Google Scholar
  21. Klaske, K. (2015) Circular Amsterdam: A vision and action agenda for the city and metropolitan area. Geemente Amsterdam: Circle Economy.Google Scholar
  22. Lisitzin, K. (2012). The potential impact of the Stockholm bypass and Ekerö road project on the outstanding universal value of the world heritage property of Royal Domain of Drottningholm Sweden. In: The Swedish National Heritage Board.Google Scholar
  23. Markkanen, J. (2016). Circular economy in real estate investment companies – case study: Suomen Yliopistokiinteistöt Oy, Kampusareena. In: Helsinki Metropolia University of Applied Sciences.Google Scholar
  24. Rizos, V., Behrens, A., Kafyeke, T., Hirschnitz-Garbers M., & Ioannou, A. (2015). The circular economy: Barriers and opportunities for SMEs. In: CEPS working document, n. 412.Google Scholar
  25. Pereira Roders, A., Bond A., & Teller J. (2013). Determining effectiveness in heritage impact assessments. In: IAIA13 Conference Proceedings, 33rd Annual Meeting of the International Association for Impact Assessment, Impact Assessment the Next Generation, Calgary Stampede BMO Centre | Calgary, Alberta, Canada, May, 13–16.Google Scholar
  26. Peterborough City Council. (2016) Peterborough preliminary draft local plan.Google Scholar
  27. Russo, P. (2011) Ridare vita a Pompei: un progetto di sviluppo sostenibile per l’area vesuviana. In: Unione Industriali Napoli, Camera di commercio Napoli.Google Scholar
  28. Sanyé-Mengual, E., Orsini, F., Oliver-Solà, J., Rieradevall, J., Ignacio Montero, J., & Gianquinto, G. (2015). Techniques and crops for efficient rooftop gardens in Bologna, Italy. Agronomy Sustainable, 35, 1477.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Sitra (2015). The opportunities of a circular economy for Finland. Available at:
  30. Smit, A. (2011). The influence of district visual quality on location decisions of creative entrepreneurs. Journal of the American Planning Association, 77, 167.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. UNESCO. (2011). Recommendation on the historic urban landscape, including a glossary of definitions. In: Available at:
  32. Van der Does de Bye, M., Van der Vusse, R., & Van Tilborg C. (2015). Roadmap circular economy Rotterdam. In: Available at:
  33. Zils, M. (2015). Towards a circular economy rethinking value chains to boost resource productivity. In: Available at:

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Pegaso UniversityNaplesItaly
  2. 2.Luigi Fusco Girard, University of Federico II NaplesNaplesItaly

Personalised recommendations