Examining Cooperative Binding of Sox2 on DC5 Regulatory Element Upon Complex Formation with Pax6 Through Excess Electron Transfer Assay

Chapter
Part of the Springer Theses book series (Springer Theses)

Abstract

Functional cooperativity among transcription factors on regulatory genetic elements is pivotal for milestone decision-making in various cellular processes including mammalian development. However, their molecular interaction during the cooperative binding cannot be precisely understood due to lack of efficient tools for the analyses of protein–DNA interaction in the transcription complex. Here, we demonstrate that photoinduced excess electron transfer assay can be used for analyzing cooperativity of proteins in transcription complex using cooperative binding of Pax6 to Sox2 on the regulatory DNA element (DC5 enhancer) as an example. In this assay, BrU-labeled DC5 was introduced for the efficient detection of transferred electrons from Sox2 and Pax6 to the DNA, and guanine base in the complementary strand was replaced with hypoxanthine (I) to block intra-strand electron transfer at the Sox2-binding site. By examining DNA cleavage occurred as a result of the electron transfer process, from tryptophan residues of Sox2 and Pax6 to DNA after irradiation at 280 nm, we not only confirmed their binding to DNA but also observed their increased occupancy on DC5 with respect to that of Sox2 and Pax6 alone as a result of their cooperative interaction.

Keywords

Excess electron transfer Transcription factor Tryptophan BrU-substituted DNA Cooperative effect 

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute CurieOrsayFrance

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