A Causal Relationship Between Dimensionality of Psychological Empowerment and Affective Commitment: A Partial Least Squares Approach

  • Yuen-Onn ChoongEmail author
  • Chun-Eng Tan
  • Thiam-Yong Kuek
  • Luen-Peng Tan
  • Kum-Lung Choe
Conference paper


The primary purpose of this empirical chapter is to examine the relationship between psychological empowerment and affective commitment among academic staff in Malaysian public universities. This study investigated the relationships among four cognitions of psychological empowerment and affective commitment. Past empirical studies indicated that affective commitment is one of the most critical organizational commitments from staff toward institutions. Primary data were collected from academic staff currently attached to Malaysian public universities. The selection of samples was based on four universities in Malaysia by adopting the stratified sampling technique. A total of 203 usable samples were successfully collected. Partial least squares structural equation modeling was adopted to conduct the confirmatory factor analysis and path co-efficiency analysis. Results revealed that except for meaning cognition, the remaining three cognitions were found to be significantly influenced by affective commitment. Several recommendations were highlighted to improve affective commitment of academic staff as well.


Affective commitment Impact cognition Meaning cognition Self-determination cognition Competence cognition 



The authors gratefully acknowledge the helpful comments and suggestions from the reviewers, which have improved the presentation.


  1. Ahmad, R., & Scott, N. (2015). Fringe benefits and organizational commitment: The case of Langkawi hotels. Tourism Review, 70(1), 13–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Aladwan, K., Bhanugopan, R., & Fish, A. (2013). To what extent the Arab workers committed to their organizations? International Journal of Commerce and Management, 23(4), 306–326.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Aladwan, K., Bhanugopan, R., & D’Netto, B. (2015). The effects of human resource management practices on employees’ organizational commitment. International Journal of Organizational Analysis, 23(3), 472–492.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Allen, N. J., & Meyer, J. P. (1990). The measurement and antecedents of affective, continuance and normative commitment to the organization. Journal of Occupational Psychology, 63, 1–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bandura, A. (2002). Self-efficacy assessment. In R. Fernandez-Ballesteros (Ed.), Encyclopedia of psychological assessment. London: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  6. Bogler, R., & Somech, A. (2004). Influence of teacher empowerment on teachers’ organizational commitment, professional commitment and organizational citizenship behavior in schools. Teaching and Teacher Education, 20, 277–289.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Chan, Y. H. (2003). A nomological network approach to the study of antecedents, moderator, mediators and outcomes of psychological empowerment. The University of Memphis.Google Scholar
  8. Chen, H. F., & Chen, Y. C. (2008). The impact of work redesign and psychological empowerment on organizational commitment in a changing environment: An example from Taiwan’s state-owned enterprises. Public Personnel Management, 37(3), 279–302.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Chin, W. W. (1998). The partial least squares approach to structural equation modeling. In G. A. Marcoulides (Ed.), Modern methods for business research (pp. 295–336). Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  10. Chin, W. W. (2010). How to write up and report PLS analyses. Berlin: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Choong, Y. O., Wong, K. L., & Lau, T. C. (2011). Intrinsic motivation and organizational commitment in the Malaysian private higher education institutions: An empirical study. Journal of Arts, Science and Commerce, 2(4), 91–100.Google Scholar
  12. Choong, Y. O., Wong, K. L., & Lau, T. C. (2012). Organizational commitment: An empirical investigation on the academician of Malaysian private universities. Business and Economics Research Journal, 3(2), 51–64.Google Scholar
  13. Choong, Y. O., Tan, C. E., Keh, C. G., Choe, K. L., & Tan, Y. T. (2014). The empirical study of psychological empowerment and affective commitment: Malaysian private universities’ academic staff. Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, 8(6), 285–292.Google Scholar
  14. Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences. Hillsdale: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  15. Dee, J. R., Henkin, A. B., & Duemer, L. (2002). Structural antecedents and psychological correlates of teacher empowerment. Journal of Educational Administration, 41(3), 257–277.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Fauzia, J., Muhamed, B., & Hossam, A. E. (2015). Examining the relationship between the psychological contract and organizational commitment. International Journal of Organizational Analysis, 23(1), 102–122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Fornell, C., & Cha, J. (1994). Partial least squares. In R. P. Bagozzi (Ed.), Advanced methods in marketing research (pp. 52–78). Cambridge: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  18. Gefen, D., Straub, D., & Boudreau, M.-C. (2000). Structural equation modeling and regression: Guidelines for research practice. Communications of the Association for Information Systems, 4(7), 1–77.Google Scholar
  19. Gurjeet, K. S., & Rupali, M. (2014). Employees’ organizational commitment and its impact on their actual turnover behavior through behavioral intentions. Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, 26(4), 621–646.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Hair, J. F., Black, W. C., Babin, B. J., & Anderson, R. E. (2010). Multivariate data analysis (7th ed.). Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  21. Hair, J. F., Hult, G. T. M., Ringle, C. M., & Sarstedt, M. (2014). A primer on partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM). Los Angeles: Sage.Google Scholar
  22. Henseler, J., Ringle, C. M., & Sinkovics, R. R. (2009). The use of partial least squares path modeling in international marketing. Advances in International Marketing, 20, 277–320.Google Scholar
  23. Jha, S. (2010). Influence of psychological empowerment on affective, normative and continuance commitment: A study in Indian IT industry. International Journal of Organizational Behavior, 15(1), 53–72.Google Scholar
  24. Joo, B. K., & Shim, J. H. (2010). Psychological empowerment and organizational commitment: The moderating effect of organizational learning culture. Human Resource Development International, 13(4), 425–441.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Laschinger, H. K. S., Finegan, J., & Shamian, J. (2001). The impact of workplace empowerment, organizational trust on staff nurses’ work satisfaction and organizational commitment. Health Care Management Review, 26(3), 7–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Liden, R. C., Wayne, S. J., & Sparrowe, R. T. (2000). An examination of the mediating role of psychological empowerment on the relations between the job, interpersonal relationships, and work outcomes. Journal of Applied Psychology, 85, 407–416.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Liu, A. M. M., Fellow, R., & Chiu, W. M. (2006). Work empowerment as an antecedent to organizational commitment in the Hong Kong quantity surveying profession. Surveying and Built Environment, 17(2), 63–72.Google Scholar
  28. Meyer, J. P., & Allen, N. J. (1987). A longitudinal analysis of the early development and consequences of organizational commitment. Canadian Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 19(2), 199–215.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Meyer, J. P., & Allen, N. J. (1991). A three-component conceptualization of organizational commitment. Human Resource Management Review, 1, 61–89.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Meyer, J. P., & Allen, N. J. (1997). Commitment in the workplace: Theory, research, and application. Thousand Oaks: Sage.Google Scholar
  31. Meyer, J. P., Allen, N. J., & Gellatly, I. R. (1990). Affective, continuance commitment to the organization: Evaluation of measures and analysis of concurrent and time-lagged relations. Journal of Applied Psychology, 75, 710–720.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Meyer, J. P., Allen, N. J., & Smith, C. A. (1993). Commitment to organizations and occupations: Extension and test of a three-component conceptualization. Journal of Applied Psychology, 78, 538–551.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Meyer, J. P., Irving, P. G., & Allen, N. J. (1998). Examination of the combined effects of work values and early work experiences on organizational commitment. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 19, 29–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Mowday, R. T., Steers, R. M., & Porter, L. W. (1979). The measurement of organizational commitment. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 14, 224–247.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Nabila, A. A. (2008). The relationship between psychological empowerment and organizational commitment: A case study among employees in construction sector in Kota Kinabalu, Sabah. Kota Kinabalu, Sabah: School of Business and Economic. UMS.Google Scholar
  36. Rawat, P. S. (2011). Effect of psychological empowerment on commitment of employees: An empirical study. Paper presented at the 2nd International Conference on Humanities, Historical and Social Sciences.Google Scholar
  37. Roscue, J. (1975). Fundamental research statistics for the behavioral sciences (2nd ed.). New York: Holt, Rinerhart and Winston.Google Scholar
  38. Somech, A., & Bogler, R. (2002). Antecedents and consequences of teacher organizational and professional commitment. Educational Administration Quarterly, 38(4), 555–577.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Spreitzer, G. M. (1995). Psychological empowerment in the workplace: Dimensions, measurement, and validation. Academy of Management Journal, 38(5), 1442–1465.Google Scholar
  40. Spreitzer, G. M. (1996). Social structural characteristics of psychological empowerment. Academy of Management Journal, 39(2), 483–503.Google Scholar
  41. Sullivan, G. M., & Feinn, R. (2012). Using effect size – or why the p values is not enough. Journal of Graduate Medical Education, 4(3), 279–282.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Thomas, K. B., & Velthouse, B. A. (1990). Cognition elements of empowerment: An “interpretive” model of intrinsic task motivation. Academy of Management Review, 15, 666–681.Google Scholar
  43. Winkelmann-Gleed, A. (2011). Retirement or committed to work? Employee Relations, 34(1), 80–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yuen-Onn Choong
    • 1
    Email author
  • Chun-Eng Tan
    • 1
  • Thiam-Yong Kuek
    • 1
  • Luen-Peng Tan
    • 1
  • Kum-Lung Choe
    • 1
  1. 1.Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman, Jalan UniversitiKamparMalaysia

Personalised recommendations