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The Transactions of NS3 and NS5 in Flaviviral RNA Replication

  • Moon Y. F. Tay
  • Subhash G. Vasudevan
Chapter
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 1062)

Abstract

Dengue virus (DENV) replication occurs in virus-induced vesicles that contain the replication complex (RC) where viral RNA, viral proteins and host proteins participate in RNA-RNA, RNA-protein and protein-protein interactions to ensure viral genome synthesis. However, the details of the multitude of interactions involved in the biogenesis of the infectious virion are not fully understood. In this review, we will focus on the interaction between non-structural (NS) proteins NS3 and NS5, as well as their interactions with viral RNA and briefly also the interaction of NS5 with the host nuclear transport receptor protein importin-α. The multifunctional NS3 protease/helicase and NS5 methyltransferase (MTase)/RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) contain all the enzymatic activities required to synthesize the viral RNA genome. The success stories of drug discovery and development with Hepatitis C virus (HCV), a member of the Flaviviridae family, has led to the view that DENV NS3 and NS5 may be attractive antiviral drug targets. However, more than 10 years of intensive research effort by Novatis has revealed that they are not “low hanging fruits” and therefore, the search for potent directly acting antivirals (DAAs) remains a pipeline goal for several medium to large drug discovery enterprises. The effort to discover DAAs for DENV has been boosted by the epidemic outbreak of the closely related flavivirus member – Zika virus (ZIKV). Because the viral RNA replication occurs within a molecular machine that is composed several viral and host proteins, much interest has turned to characterising functionally essential protein-protein interactions in order to identify potential allosteric inhibitor binding sites within the RC.

Keywords

NS5 RNA-dependent RNA polymerase Dengue virus infectious clone NS3 helicase Site-directed mutagenesis NS3 and NS5 antibodies 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We thank our past and present collaborators David A. Jans, Jade K. Forwood, Andrew Brooks, Magnus Johansson, Andrew Davidson, Julien Lescar, Dahai Luo, Yap T.L., Siew Pheng Lim, Nicole J. Moreland, Indira Umareddy, Aruna Sampath, Yongqian Zhao, Ivan H.W. Ng, Kitti W.K. Chan, Wuan Geok Saw, Gerhard Gruber, Crystall Swarbrick, Shu Ann Chan, Kate Smith, Gottfried Otting, Zheng Yin, Li Shang and Rolf Hilgenfeld for their important contributions to understanding of flavivirus NS proteins. The research on NS3 and NS5 interactions of flaviviruses in the Vasudevan lab is supported by National Medical Research Council (NMRC/CBRG/0103/2016) and National Research Foundation (NRF-CRP17-2017-04) in Singapore.

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© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Nanyang Technological University Food Technology Centre (NAFTEC)Nanyang Technological University (NTU)SingaporeSingapore
  2. 2.Emerging Infectious Diseases ProgramDuke-NUS Medical School SingaporeSingaporeSingapore

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