• Jing Liu
Part of the Education in the Asia-Pacific Region: Issues, Concerns and Prospects book series (EDAP, volume 43)


This final chapter summarizes the research findings based on the analysis of discourses and practices in the development of competition for a school position in public lower secondary education in urban China. Discussion on how to further understand the phenomenon of Zexiao was provided, as well as implications for the theoretical debate, the new solutions, and future research.


Public School Admission parentsParents Public Junior High Schools Public educationPublic Education Urban ChinaChina 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 21st Century Education Research Institute. (2011). Beijingshi “xiaoshengchu” Zexiaore de zhili: luzaihefang? (Where is the way for alleviation of Zexiao fever in transition to junior high schools?). Beijing, China: 21st Century Education Research Institute.Google Scholar
  2. Andre-Bechely, L. (2005). Could it be otherwise? Parents and the inequities of public school choice. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  3. Bourdieu, P. (1986). The forms of capital. In J. G. Richardson (Ed.), Handbook of theory and research for the sociology of education (pp. 241–258). New York: Greenwood Press.Google Scholar
  4. Gewirtz, S., Ball, S. J., & Bowe, R. (1995). Markets, choice and equity in education. Buckingham, UK: Open University Press.Google Scholar
  5. Horvat, E. M., Weininger, E. B., & Lareau, A. (2006). From social ties to social capital: Class differences in the relations between schools and parent networks. In H. Lauder, P. Brown, J.-A. Dillabough, & A. H. Halsey (Eds.), Education, globalization & social change (pp.454–467). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  6. Lareau, A. (1989). Home advantage: Social class and parental intervention in elementary education. Philadelphia: Falmer Press.Google Scholar
  7. Lin, J. (2006). Educational stratification and the new middle class. In G. A. Postiglione (Ed.), Education and social change in China (pp. 179–198). Armonk, NY: M.E.Sharpe.Google Scholar
  8. Liu, J. (2016). School district reform for “free, equitable and quality” public education in urban China: Achievements and challenges. Norrag News, 54, 59. Retrieved January 14, 2017, from
  9. Liu, J. (2018). Constructing resource sharing collaboration for quality public education in urban China: Case study of school alliance in Beijing. International Journal of Educational Development, 59, 9–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. National People’s Congress. (2006). Compulsory education law of People’s Republic of China. Beijing, China: National People’s Congress.Google Scholar
  11. Tsang, M. C. (2003). School choice in the People’s Republic of China. In D. N. Plank, & G. Sykes (Eds.), Choosing choice (June 2001 pp. 164–195). New York: Teachers College Press.Google Scholar
  12. Wang, L. (2009). Basic education in China. Hangzhou, China: Zhejiang University Press.Google Scholar
  13. Wu, X. (2012). School choice with Chinese characteristics. Comparative Education, 48(3), 347–366.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Yang, D. (2005, December 1). Huifu yiwu jiaoyu de gongyixing, pingdengxing, gongzhengxing (The return of publicity, equality, and equity of compulsory education). Nanfang Zhoumo, p. A2.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jing Liu
    • 1
  1. 1.The University of TokyoTokyoJapan

Personalised recommendations