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Chemokines and Chemokine Receptors in the Development of NAFLD

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Obesity, Fatty Liver and Liver Cancer

Part of the book series: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology ((AEMB,volume 1061))

Abstract

Chemokines are chemo-attractants for leukocyte trafficking, growth, and activation in injured and inflammatory tissues. The chemokine system is comprised of 50 chemokine ligands and 20 cognate chemokine receptors. In the context of liver diseases, leukocytes, hepatocytes, hepatic stellate cells, endothelial cells, and vascular smooth muscle cells are capable of producing chemokines. Chemokine receptors are typically expressed in various leukocyte subsets. Given that inflammation is a critical factor for the transition from simple steatosis to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), and fibrosis, the chemokine system may play a prominent role in the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Indeed, accumulating evidence shows elevated expression of chemokines and their receptors in the livers of obese patients with advanced steatosis and NASH. This chapter will discuss the underlying molecular mechanisms and the therapeutic potential of the chemokine systems in the pathogenesis of NAFLD. Among chemokines, we will highlight CCL2, CCL5, CXCL8-10, CX3CL1, and CXCL16 as pivotal mediators in the development of steatosis, NASH, and fibrosis.

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Acknowledgements

This work was supported by NIH grant R01DK085252 (E.S) and R21AA025841(E.S), Winnick Research award from Cedars-Sinai Medical Center (E.S), and American Liver Foundation Congressman John Joseph Moakley Postdoctoral Research Fellowship (Y.S.R) and NRF grant 2017R1C1B2004423 (Y.S.R).

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Correspondence to Ekihiro Seki .

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Roh, YS., Seki, E. (2018). Chemokines and Chemokine Receptors in the Development of NAFLD. In: Yu, J. (eds) Obesity, Fatty Liver and Liver Cancer. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology, vol 1061. Springer, Singapore. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-10-8684-7_4

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