Nature-Based Tourism in a City Destination: Balancing Planning with Sustainability
Hong Kong, like many large cities, has developed a substantial urban-focused tourism sector but has largely ignored the potential of its surrounding natural areas to contribute to its overall suite of tourism experiences. About 40% of Hong Kong has been designed as country parks and special areas. This chapter investigates the potential of Hong Kong to expand its portfolio of attractions to include nature-based experiences. A qualitative approach using semi-structured interviews was used to gather the views of the local stakeholders on the potential for developing nature-based tourism in Hong Kong. Participants were generally supportive but however raised a number of issues that needed to be addressed prior to further development of natural areas. Issues raised included the impact on the local community, the need for independent planning processes, and the concerns about potential negative impacts on the environment.
KeywordsNature-based tourism Sustainability Community involvement Geopark Hong Kong
- Agriculture, Fisheries and Conservation Department (AFCD). (2015). Country parks and special areas distribution map. http://www.afcd.gov.hk/english/country/cou_vis/cou_vis_cou/cou_vis_cou_1.html. Accessed 1 Feb 2017.
- Beeton, S. (2006). Community development through tourism. Melbourne: Landlinks Press.Google Scholar
- Butler, R. W. (1980). The concept of a tourist area cycle of evolution: Implications for management of resources. The Canadian Geographer/Le Géographe canadien, 24(1), 5–12. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1541-0064.1980.tb00970.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Chan, Y. W & Fung, Y. H. (2009) No, we are not ‘eco-tourists’: Hill-walking and eco-tourism in Hong Kong. In: Singh S (ed) Domestic tourism in Asia: Diversity and divergence. Taylor & Francis, Oxon, p 219–234.Google Scholar
- Elkington, J. (2004). Enter the triple bottom line. In A. Henriques & J. Richardson (Eds.), The triple bottom line: Does it all add up (pp. 1–16). London: Earthscan Publications.Google Scholar
- GovHK. (2016). Hong Kong: The facts – Country parks and conservation. http://www.gov.hk/en/about/abouthk/factsheets/docs/country_parks.pdf. Accessed 1 Feb 2017.
- Hong Kong Tourism Board. (2016). A statistical review of Hong Kong Tourism 2015. http://securepartnernet.hktb.com/filemanager/intranet/ir/ResearchStatistics/paper/Stat-Review/StatReview2015/Statistical%20Review%202015.pdf. Accessed 1 Feb 2017.
- Hong Kong Tourism Board. (2017). Visitor arrivals monthly report. http://partnernet.hktb.com/filemanager/intranet/pm/VisitorArrivalStatistics/ViS_Stat_C/ViS_C_2016/Tourism%20Statistics%2012%202016.pdf. Accessed 1 Feb 2017.
- Hong Kong Tourism Board. (n.d.). Po Toi Island. http://www.discoverhongkong.com/eng/see-do/great-outdoors/hikes/po-toi-island.jsp. Accessed 1 Feb 2017.
- Jennings, G. (2001). Tourism research. Sydney: Wiley.Google Scholar
- Lands Department. (2014). How to apply for a small house grant. http://www.landsd.gov.hk/en/images/doc/NTSHP_E_text.pdf. Accessed 1 Feb 2017.
- Lonely Planet. (2013). Ten of the world’s best city hike. https://www.lonelyplanet.com/brazil/travel-tips-and-articles/ten-of-the-worlds-best-city-hikes. Accessed 1 Feb 2017.
- Lundmark, L., & Müller, D. K. (2010). The supply of nature-based tourism activities in Sweden. Turizam: znanstveno-stručni časopis, 58(4), 379–393.Google Scholar
- National Geographic. (2013). World’s best hikes: 20 dream trails. http://www.nationalgeographic.com/adventure/trips/best-trails/worlds-best-hikes-dream-trails/. Accessed 1 Feb 2017.
- Saarinen, J., & Tervo, K. (2006). Perceptions and adaptation strategies of the tourism industry to climate change: The case of Finnish nature-based tourism entrepreneurs. International Journal of Innovation and Sustainable Development, 1(3), 214–228. https://doi.org/10.1504/IJISD.2006.012423.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Singapore Tourism Board (STB). (2014). Tourism 50 1964–2014: A journey through 50 years & beyond: Singapore Tourism Board annual report 2013/14. https://www.stb.gov.sg/news-and-publications/publications/Documents/STB_Annual_Report%202013%202014.pdf. Accessed 1 Feb 2017.
- Stankey, G., Cole, D., Lucas, R., Peterson, M., Frissell, S. & Washburne, R. (1985). The limits of acceptable change LAC system for wilderness planning (General Technical Report INT-176). Available via United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. https://www.fs.fed.us/cdt/carrying_capacity/lac_system_for_wilderness_planning_1985_GTR_INT_176.pdf. Accessed 26 Feb 2017.
- Teo, P., & Chang, T. C. (2000). Singapore: Tourism development in a planned context. In C. M. Hall & S. Page (Eds.), Tourism in south and southeast Asia (pp. p117–p128). Oxford: Routledge.Google Scholar
- World Commission on Environment and Development. (1987). Our common future (Brundtland Report). Oxford University Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
- World Wide Fund For Nature Hong Kong. (2016). Mai Po nature reserve. http://www.wwf.org.hk/en/whatwedo/water_wetlands/mai_po_nature_reserve/. Accessed 1 Feb 2017.