Ship Navigation Optimization

  • Bao-Ji Zhang
  • Sheng-Long Zhang


The equilibrium state of a ship floating on the sea is called the ship floating state. There are four states for a ship sailing on the sea: upright condition, heel, trim, and any inclination floatation. Large bow trim will cause the speed loss, the difficult operation, and the water on the deck around the bow section. Large stern trim will cause the amending course and the damage of the ship structure. Large trim will influence the normal operation of the propeller and the main engine (Qiu [1]). Overall, the suitable floating state is of great importance for the safety navigation of a ship. On the basis of the existing experimental data, a suitable stern trim is required for a ship sailing on the sea since it can improve the rapidity and seaworthiness of a ship.


Stern Trim Upright Condition Large Trim Speed Loss Seaworthiness 
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  1. 1.
    Qiu BB (2014) Ship trim optimization. China Ship Surv 2:70–74Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Lin HB, Zhu GY (1986) On the navigation of ships with optimum trims and energy-saving. In: Academic exchange meeting of china japan navigation association (1986)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Zhang J (2015) Study on ship energy efficiency based on trim optimization. Dalian Maritime UniversityGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Liu YF, Zhang J, Zhang YW (2015) Calculation of ship sinkage, trim and wave drag using high-order Rankine source method. Ship Eng 12:31–34Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Chen X, Zhu RZ, Miu GP, Fan J (2015) Numerical model of ship energy efficiency with trim optimization. China Shipbuild 56(3):2–12Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Shanghai Jiao Tong University Press, Shanghai and Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bao-Ji Zhang
    • 1
  • Sheng-Long Zhang
    • 2
  1. 1.College of Ocean Science and EngineeringShanghai Maritime UniversityShanghaiChina
  2. 2.Merchant Marine CollegeShanghai Maritime UniversityShanghaiChina

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