Common Pests and Diseases of Medicinal Plants and Strategies to Manage Them

  • T. Marimuthu
  • M. Suganthy
  • S. Nakkeeran
Chapter

Abstract

Medicinal plants are known to Indian traditional healers since time immemorial. The plants were collected, by and large, from the wild and were used in many preparations of wellness products. India is endowed with diverse group of medicinal plants accounting for more than 8000 species which are being used in more than 10,000 herbal products. Ninety percent of herbal industry’s requirement of raw materials is meted out from the natural ecosystem – forests – resulting in ruthless exploitation and destruction of its natural habitats (Mathivanan et al. 2016). As one of the measures to conserve the precious species, commercial cultivation began which inadvertently brought the problem of pests and diseases leading to crop loss of various magnitudes. This chapter will discuss on major pests and diseases of some important medicinal plants like noni (Morinda citrifolia L.), glory lily (Gloriosa superba), makoi (Solanum nigrum), medicinal coleus (Coleus forskohlii), senna (Cassia angustifolia) and ashwagandha (Withania somnifera). Medicinal plants being used in health-care system and chemical methods of management of pests and diseases are becoming obsolete. It is a must that non-chemical, eco-friendly safer methods of management are essential which are also being discussed in this chapter.

References

  1. Baker RED, Dale WT (1948) Fungi of Barbados and the Windward Islands. Mycological papers, No.25Google Scholar
  2. Bhattacharya A, Battacharya S (2008) A study on root-rot disease of Coleus forskohlii Briq. occurring in Gangetic West Bengal. J Bot Soc Benagal 62:43–47Google Scholar
  3. Boral LC, Dekas N (2007) Wilt disease suppression and yield enhancement in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) by application of Pseudomonas fluorescens-based biopesticide (Biofor – Pf) in Assam. Indian J Agric Sci 77(8):490–494Google Scholar
  4. Bostock RM, Karban R, Thaler JS, Weyman PD, Gilchrist D (2001) Signal interactions in induced resistance to pathogens and insect herbivores. Eur J Plant Pathol 107:103–111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Chandrashekara KN, Prasannakumar MK (2010) New host plants for Ralstonia solanacearum from India. New Dis Rep 22:6Google Scholar
  6. Chatterjee A, Balasubramanian V, Vachhani WL, Gnanamanickam SS, Chatterjee AK (1996) Isolation of ant mutants of Pseudomonas fluorescens strain Pf 7-14 altered in antibiotic production, cloning of ant+ DNA and evaluation of the role of antibiotic production in the control of blast and sheath blight of rice. Biol Control 7:185–195CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Chester K (1933) The problem of acquired physiological immunity in plants. Q Rev Biol 8:129–151CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Cook RJ, Baker KF (1983) The nature and practice of biological control of plant pathogens. American Phytopathological Society, St. Paul, p 320Google Scholar
  9. Cook RJ, Weller DM (1986) Management of take-all in consecutive crops of wheat or barley. In: Chet I (ed) Innovative approaches to plant disease control. Wiley, New York, p 372Google Scholar
  10. De Meyer G, Hofte M (1997) Salicylic acid production by the rhizobacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa 7NSK2 induces resistance to leaf infection by Botrytis cinerea on bean. Phytopathology 87:588–593CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Ebbels DL, Allen DJ (1979) A supplementary and annotated list of plant diseases, pathogens and associated fungi in Tanzania. Phytopathological papers, No.22Google Scholar
  12. Fernandes RC, Barreto RW (2003) Corynespora cassiicola causing leaf spots on Coleus barbatus. Plant Pathol 52:786CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Gahukar RT (2012) Evaluation of plant-derived products against pests and diseases of medicinal plants: a review. Crop Prot 42:202–209CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Gupta ML, Misra HO, Kalra A, Khanuja SPS (2004) Root-rot and wilt: a new disease of ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) caused by Fusarium solani. J Med Aromat Plant Sci 26(2):285–287Google Scholar
  15. Hammerschmidt R, Kuc J (1995) Induced resistance to diseases in plants. Klewer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, p 182CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Hanumanthaswamy BC, Rajgopal D, Farooqui AA, Chakravarthy AK (1993) Insect pests of Costus speciosus Linn., a medicinal plant. My For 29(2):158–160Google Scholar
  17. Hubballi M, Nakkeeran S, Raguchander T, Rajendran L, Renukadevi P, Samiyappan R (2010) First report of leaf blight of noni caused by Alternaria alternata (Fr.) Keissler. J Gen Plant Pathol 76:284–286CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Hubballi M, Nakkeeran S, Raguchander T (2012) First report of anthracnose on noni caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides in India. Arch Phytopathol Plant Protect 45(3):276–279CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Hubert JJ, Helton AW (1967) A translocated resistance phenomenon in Prunus domestica induced by initial infection with Cytospora cineta. Phytopathology 57:1094–1098Google Scholar
  20. Jayakumar M (2010) Pests and their natural enemies of Morinda in South India. WNRF Technical Bulletin-04, World Noni Research Foundation and Sun Agro Biotech Research Centre, Chennai, India, p 29Google Scholar
  21. Jayaraman J, Parthasarathi T, Radhakrishnan NV (2007) Characterization of a Pseudomonas fluorescens strain from tomato rhizosphere and its use for integrated management of tomato damping-off. BioControl 52:683–702CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Kamalakannan A, Mohan L, Valluvaparidasan V, Mareeswari P, Karuppiah R (2006) First report of Macrophomina root rot (Macrophomina phaseolina) on medicinal coleus (Coleus forskohlii) in India. Plant Pathol 55:302CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Kapur ML, Bhalla S, Verma BR (2002) Pest of quarantine significance – some minor tuber crops. Indian J Entomol 64(1):110–113Google Scholar
  24. Kavitha PG, Jonathan EI, Nakkeeran S, Rajamani K, Vanitha S (2011a) Assessment of avoidable yield loss of noni, Morinda citrifolia due to root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita. In: Rethinam P, Marimuthu T (eds) Proceedings of sixth national symposium-Noni – a Panacea for wellness. World Noni Research Foundation, Chennai, pp 214–217Google Scholar
  25. Kavitha PG, Jonathan EI, Nakkeeran S (2011b) Life cycle, histopathology and yield loss caused by root knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita on Noni. Madras Agric J 98:386–389Google Scholar
  26. Kavitha PG, Jonathan EI, Sankari Meena K (2012) Host-parasite relationship and pathogenicity of root knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita in Noni. Madras Agric J 99(10–12):862–866Google Scholar
  27. Kim PI, Chung KC (2004) Production of an antifungal protein for control of Colletotrichum lagenarium by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens MET0908. FEMS Microbiol Lett 234:177–183CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Kuc J, Richmond S (1977) Aspects of the protection of cucumber against Colletotrichum lagenarium by Colletotrichum lagenarium. Phytopathology 67:533–536CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Kumar HR (2007) Survey of pests of medicinal plants with special reference to biology and management of Epilachna beetle, Henosepilachna vigintioctopunctata Fabricius (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) on Ashwagandha. M.Sc. (Agri) Thesis, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad. p 92Google Scholar
  30. Lee IM, Davis RE, Gundersen-Rindal DE (2000) Phytoplasma: phytopathogenic mollicutes. Annu Rev Microbiol 54:221–255CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Legal L, David JR, Jallon JM (1992) Toxicity and attraction effects produced by Morinda citrifolia fruits on the Drosophila melanogaster complex of species. Chemecology 3:125–129CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Lenne JM (1990) Diseases of Cassia species – a review. Trop Grassl 24:311–324Google Scholar
  33. Magar DB, Barhate BG (2013) Studies on wilt of senna and in vitro evaluation of fungicides and bioagents against Fusarium oxisporum. J Plant Dis Sci 8(2):182–186Google Scholar
  34. Maiti CK, Sen S, Paul AK, Acharya K (2007) First report of leaf blight disease of Gloriosa superba L., caused by Alternaria alternata (Fr.) Keissler in India. J Gen Plant Pathol 73(5):377–378CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Malarvannan S (2010). Surveillance of insect pests of Morinda citrifolia L. and Morinda pubescencs J.E. Sm. In West Coast of Kerala and Karnataka. WNRF Technical Bulletin-02, World Noni Research Foundation and M.S. Swaminathan Research Foundation, Chennai, p 28
  36. Mathivanan N, Sithanantham S, Marimuthu T, Peter KV, Rethinam P, Brahma S, Peter PI, Kirti S (2016) Therapeutic and commercial potential of medicinal plants with special focus on Morinda citrifolia L. (Noni). Souvenir cum Abstracts, Second World Noni Congress, March, 2016, SRM University, Kattankulathur, Tamil NaduGoogle Scholar
  37. Maurhofer M, Hase C, Maurwly D, Metraux JP, Defago G (1994) Induction of systemic resistance of tobacco to tobacco necrosis virus by the root colonizing Pseudomonas fluorescens strain CHA0: influence of the gac A gene and of pyoverdine production. Phytopathology 84:136–146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Meena B, Rajamani K (2016) Biological management of root-rot disease in Gloriosa superba. Int J Noni Res 11(1 & 2):82–85Google Scholar
  39. Meena B, Radhajeyalakshmi R, Marimuthu T, Vidhyasekaran P, Doraiswamy S, Velazhahan R (2000) Induction of pathogenesis-related proteins, phenolics and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase in groundnut by Pseudomonas fluorescens. J Plant Dis Prot 107:514–527Google Scholar
  40. Meshram PB, Mawai NS, Malviya R (2015) Biological control of insect pests of medicinal plants ,Abelmoschus moschatus, Gloriosa superba and Withania somnifera in forest nursery and plantation in Madhya Pradesh, India. Am J Agric For 3:47–51.  https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ajaf.20150302.16
  41. Mew TW, Rosales AM (1986) Bacterization of rice plants for control of sheath blight caused by Rhizoctonia solani. Phytopathology 76:1260–1264CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Muralibaskaran RK, Rajavel DS, Shanthi M, Suresh K, Kumar S (2007) Insect diversity and damage potential in medicinal plants ecosystem. Insect Environ 13(2):76–79Google Scholar
  43. Muralibaskaran RK, Rajavel DS, Suresh K (2009) Yield loss by major insect pests in Coleus. Ann Plant Prot Sci 17(1):232Google Scholar
  44. Nakkeeran S, Dilantha Fernando WG, Siddiqui ZA (2005) Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria formulations and its scope in commercialization for the management of pests and diseases. In: Siddiqui ZA (ed) PGPR: biocontrol and biofertilization. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 257–296Google Scholar
  45. Nakkeeran S, Marimuthu T, Raguchander T (2013) Exploring DAPG and phenazine producing PGPR strains and fungal antagonists for the management of diseases of Noni (Morinda citrifolia L.), WNRF Technical Bulletin-11, World Noni Research Foundation, p 329Google Scholar
  46. Nandakumar R, Babu S, Viswanathan R, Raguchander T, Samiyappan R (2001) Induction of systemic resistance in rice against sheath blight disease by plant growth promoting rhizobacteria. Soil Biol Biochem 33:603–612CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Pai RK, Sharma M, Salar RK, Sharma A, Gupta AP, Singh B (2008) Studies on leaf spot of disease of Withania somnifera and its impact on secondary metabolites. Indian J Microbiol 48:432–437CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Palanna KB, Palaiah P, Muthamilan M (2007) Effect of manures on growth, sporulation and antifungal activity of Trichoderma viride. Karnataka J Agric Sci 20(4):861–863Google Scholar
  49. Peter KV (2009) Compendium of Noni research. World Noni Research Foundation, Chennai, p 884Google Scholar
  50. Raj PK, Tetaawal ML (2010) Biochemical changes in senna (Cassia angustifolia Vahl.) leaves infected with Alternaria alternata. Progress Agric 10(1):168–169Google Scholar
  51. Rajendran L (2006) Biotechnological tools and methods for early detection and sustainable management of basal stem rot disease in coconut plantation using microbial consortia. Ph.D Thesis, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore, India, p 201Google Scholar
  52. Ramakrishanan S, Senthilkumar T (2009) Non-chemical management of root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita in ashwagandha (Withania somnifera Dunal) and senna (Cassia angustifolia Vahl.) Indian J Nematol 39(2):170–174Google Scholar
  53. Ramanna D (2009) Investigations on pest complex of medicinal plants and their management with special reference to ashwagandha, Withania somnifera (Linn.). M.Sc. (Ag) Thesis, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad, p 88Google Scholar
  54. Ramprasad S (2005) Studies on collar rot complex of Coleus forskohlii (Wild.) Briq. M.Sc. Thesis, UAS Dharwad, IndiaGoogle Scholar
  55. Rathikannu S (2005) Bio-ecology, management of pests of Gloriosa superba (Linn) and Phyllanthus amarus (Schum and Thonn) and influence of insect damage on the medicinal properties. M.Sc. (Ag.) Thesis, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore, p 68Google Scholar
  56. Rathikannu S, Sivasubramanian P, Suganthy M (2011) Field efficacy of botanicals on lepidopteran pests of glory lily, Gloriosa superba (L.) In: Dunston PA (ed) Insect pest management – a current scenario. Entomology Research Unit, Tamil Nadu, pp 505–508Google Scholar
  57. Rukmani S, Mariappan V (1993) Influence of organic amendments with Trichoderma viride on the control of root rot of blackgram. Plant Dis Res 5:244Google Scholar
  58. Saravanakumar D (2006) Molecular and biochemical marker assisted selection of fluorescent pseudomonad strains for ecofriendly management of leaffolder insect and sheath rot disease in rice. Ph.D Thesis, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore-3, India, p 275Google Scholar
  59. Saravanan T, Muthusamy M, Marimuthu T (2003) Development of integrated approach to manage the Fusarium wilt of banana. Crop Prot 22:1117–1123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Senthamarai K, Poornima K, Subramanian S (2006) Pathogenicity of Meloidogyne incognita on Coleus forskohlii Briq. Indian J Nematol 36(1):123–125Google Scholar
  61. Senthilkumaran S (2008) Studies on development of organic package for the management of major insect pests of senna (Cassia angustifolia Vahl.). M.Sc. (Ag) Thesis, The Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore, p 144Google Scholar
  62. Shanthakumar SP, Prabavathy VR, Malarvannan S (2013) Laboratory evaluation of individual and synergistic action of botanicals and microbials against two mealy bug species, Planococcus citri and Maconellicoccus hirsutus. In: Rethinam P, Marimuthu T (eds) Proceedings of eighth national symposium on Noni for sustainable wellness, October 29–30, pp 94–106Google Scholar
  63. Shanthakumar SP, Benish Rose PM, Prabavathy VR, Malarvannan S (2014) Essential oil phytochemistry of Morinda citrifolia for its insecticidal property against mealy bug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus. In: Rethinam P, Marimuthu T (eds) Proceedings of ninth national symposium on Noni for everyone, September 27–28, pp 97–109Google Scholar
  64. Sharma P, Pandey R (2009) Biological control of root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita in the medicinal plant – Withania somnifera and the effect of biocontrol agents on plant growth. Afr J Agric Res 4(6):564–567Google Scholar
  65. Sheela J (1992) Biological control of Fusarium wilt of brinjal (Solanum melongena L.) caused by Fusarium solani (Mart) Sacc. M.Sc.(Ag.) Thesis, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore, India, 165pGoogle Scholar
  66. Shivanna MB, Achar KGS, Vasanthakumari MM, Mahishi P (2014a) Phoma leaf spot disease of Tinospora cordifolia and its effect on secondary metabolite production. J Phytopathol 162:302–312.  https://doi.org/10.1111/jph.12191CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Shivanna MB, Parashurama TR, Somashekhara Achar KG, Vasanthakumari MM (2014b) Fungal foliar diseases in Withania somnifera and its effect on secondary metabolites. Plant Biosyst 148(5):907–916CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Singh R, Parameswaran TN, Divya S, Puttann K, Satyasrinivas KVN, Bagyaraj DJ, Karla A (2009a) Management of root-rot/wilt of coleus forskohlii Briq. In: CIMAP golden Jubilee National Symposium on medicinal and aromatic plants “fifty years of research on medicinal & aromatic plants”, CIMAP, RC, Bangalore, p 18Google Scholar
  69. Singh R, Parameswaran TN, Prakasa Rao EVS, Puttanna K, Alok K, Srinivas KVNS, Bagyaraj DJ, Divya S (2009b) Effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and Pseudomonas fluorescens on root-rot/wilt, growth and yield of Coleus forskohlii. Biocontrol Sci Tech 19(8):835–841CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Sithananthaam S, Mathivanan N, Marimuthu T, Kannaiyan J, Jayakumar M, Nakkeeran S (2010) Identification of pests and diseases of Noni – a hand book. WNRF Technical Bulletin-06, World Noni Research Foundation, Chennai, p 95Google Scholar
  71. Sithanantham S, Kannaiyan J, Malavannan S, Jayakumar M, Marimuthu T (2011) Holistic assessment of recent research in Noni pests- diseases scenario and scope for their organic management in India. In: Rethinam P, Marimuthu T (eds) Proceedings of sixth national symposium on Noni – a panacea for wellness, October 1–2, 2011, pp 218–238Google Scholar
  72. Sithanantham S, Suganthy M, Janarthanan S, Mathivanan N, Marimuthu T, Venkatachalam A, Judy S, Rethinam P (2016) Organic pest control in cultivated medicinal plants: current Indian scenario and future R & D needs with case study of Noni. Int J Noni Res 11(1 & 2):60–73Google Scholar
  73. Somashekhara Achar KG, Parashurama TR, Shivanna MB (2015) A new flat stem disease of Tinospora cordifolia caused by Phytoplasma. Sch Acad J Biosci 3(11):957–959Google Scholar
  74. Sudha A, Lakshmanan P (2007) Solanum nigrum, a new host for powdery mildew disease of Capsicum annuum in the Madurai district of Tamil Nadu, India. Aust Plant Dis Notes 2:97.  https://doi.org/10.1071/DN07040CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Suganthy M (2014) Bio-efficacy of botanical pesticides on pest complex of Solanum nigrum Linn. In: Proceedings of national Symposium on emerging trends in eco-friendly insect pest management, Department of Agricultural Entomology, TNAU, Coimbatore, 22–24, January, 2014, A.E. Publications, Coimbatore, pp 113–114Google Scholar
  76. Suganthy M, Rajamani K (2015) Management of insect pests of Gloriosa superba L., the state flower of Tamil Nadu. In: Proceedings of Third International Symposium on Underutilized Plant Species Exploration and Conservation for Future Generation, Madurai, Tamil Nadu, India, 5–8 August, 2015Google Scholar
  77. Suganthy M, Sakthivel P (2012) Field efficacy of biopesticides against Plusia signata (Fabricius) on Gloriosa superba. Madras Agri J 99(4–6):368–370Google Scholar
  78. Suganthy M, Sakthivel P (2013) Field evaluation of botanicals on pest complex of Solanum nigrum Linn. Madras Agri J 100(4–6):592–596Google Scholar
  79. Suganthy M, Vijayakumar RM (2013) Insect pests of medicinal and aromatic crops and their management. A. E. Publications, Coimbatore, p 95. (ISBN: 93-81972-20-6)Google Scholar
  80. Suganthy M, Rajamani K, Nalina L, Meena B (2011) Insect pests of medicinal and aromatic crops. Tamil Nadu Agricultural University Press, TNAU, Coimbatore, p 52Google Scholar
  81. Suganthy M, Sakthivel P, Sundareswaran S (2012) Insect pests of medicinal and aromatic plants and their management. In: Babu S (ed) Exploration, achievements and development in biological sciences. A.E. Publications, Coimbatore, pp 41–52. (ISBN: 93-81972-06-0)Google Scholar
  82. Suganthy M, Rajamani K, Nalina L, Meena B (2015) Development of IPM module against major pests of black nightshade, Solanum nigrum. In: 3rd international symposium on underutilized plant species held at Agricultural College & Research Institute, Madurai, Tamil Nadu, 5–8 August, 2015, p 385Google Scholar
  83. Thangavel K (2010) Studies on the development of bio-intensive module for the management of major insect pests of coleus (Coleus forskohlii Briq.). M.Sc. (Ag) Thesis, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore. p.136Google Scholar
  84. Tuzun S, Kuc J (1991) Plant immunization: an alternative to pesticides for control of plant diseases in green house and field. In: Bay-Peterson J (ed) The biological control of plant diseases. Food and Fertilizer Technology Centre, Taiwan, pp 30–40Google Scholar
  85. Upadhyay S, Mishra RC (1999) Efficacy and economics of insecticides and neem (Azadirachta indica) based products on incidence of aphid (Aphis gossypii) on isabgol (Plantago ovata). Indian J Agri Sci 69:161–162Google Scholar
  86. Veerasamy S (1997) Studies on management of leaf blight disease of brinjal (Solanum melongena) caused by Alternaria alternata (Fr.) Keissler and Alternaria solani (Ell. and Mont.) Jones and Grout. M.Sc. (Ag.) Thesis, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore, India, p 126Google Scholar
  87. Venkatachalam A, Sithanantham S, Mathivanan N, Ramkumar D, Marimuthu, T (2014) Recent research on fruit damage by pests in Noni (Morinda citrifolia L.) and scope for their eco-friendly management. In: Rethinam P, Marimuthu T (eds) Proceedings of ninth national symposium on Noni for everyone, September 27–28, pp 67–86Google Scholar
  88. Vidhyasekaran P, Muthamilan M (1995) Development of formulations of Pseudomonas fluorescens for control of chickpea wilt. Plant Dis 79:782–786CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Vidhyasekaran P, Sethuraman K, Rajappan K, Vasumathi K (1997) Powder formulation of Pseudomonas fluorescens to control pigeonpea wilt. Biol Control 8:166–171CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Viswanathan R, Samiyappan R (1999) Induction of systemic resistance by plant growth promoting rhizobacteria against red rot disease caused by Colletotrichum falcatum Went in sugarcane. Proc Sugarcane Technol Assoc, India 61:24–39Google Scholar
  91. Vivekananthan R, Ravi M, Ramanathan A, Kumar N, Samiyappan R (2006) Pre harvest application of a new bio-control formulation induces resistance to post harvest anthracnose and enhances fruit yield in mango. Phytopathol Mediterr 45:126–138Google Scholar
  92. Wei L, Kloepper JW, Tuzun S (1996) Induced systemic resistance to cucumber diseases and increased plant growth promoting rhizobacteria under field conditions. Phytopathology 86:221–224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Yan Z, Reddy MS, Kloepper JW (2003) Survival and colonization of rhizobacteria in a tomato transplant system. Can J Microbiol 49:383–389CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • T. Marimuthu
    • 1
  • M. Suganthy
    • 2
  • S. Nakkeeran
    • 3
  1. 1.World Noni Research FoundationChennaiIndia
  2. 2.Department of Medicinal and Aromatic CropsTamil Nadu Agricultural UniversityCoimbatoreIndia
  3. 3.Department of Plant PathologyTamil Nadu Agricultural UniversityCoimbatoreIndia

Personalised recommendations