To Determine Alanine and Aspartate Transaminase Activity in Serum
Transaminases are tissue-specific intracellular enzymes, which catalyze reversible transfer of α-amino group from amino acid to α-keto acid. They are present in almost all cells, but higher amounts occur mainly in the liver, brain, heart, and kidney. Two clinically important transaminases are serum glutamine oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT), also called aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and serum glutamine pyruvate transaminase (SGPT) also called alanine aminotransferase (ALT). Alanine transaminase is present in high amount in the cardiac muscles but is also present significantly in other tissues of the body. ALT shows its high concentration in the liver and kidney, and trace amounts are present in the skin, pancreas, spleen, lungs, and cardiac and skeletal muscle. Both AST and ALT enzymes are not excreted in urine unless a kidney lesion is present. The measurement of these enzymes is a useful diagnosis indicator of liver functions.