Environmental Scan and Framework of Watershed Risk Assessment in Malaysia

  • Lubna Alam
  • Mazlin Mokhtar
  • Goh Choo Ta
  • Khai Ern Lee
  • Mohd Talib Latif


Water is not only a resource, it is a life source; therefore, the water should be healthy, secure, and sustainable for people. Watersheds are nature’s boundaries for surface water supplies, and thus, the quality of the drinking water at a consumer’s tap depends on the quality of watershed. The risk assessment which is a process used to define the probability and magnitude of adverse effects of an environment from stressors can be used to estimate the costs and benefits of changes in a watershed in terms of risk. This chapter describes the source of pollution and the framework for assessing risk in Malaysian watershed.


Pollution status Chemical contamination Risk assessment Risk Management 



Financial assistance for this research provided by the research project FRGS/2/2014/STWN01/UKM/02/2 and XX-15-2012 are gratefully acknowledged


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lubna Alam
    • 1
  • Mazlin Mokhtar
    • 2
  • Goh Choo Ta
    • 1
  • Khai Ern Lee
    • 1
    • 4
  • Mohd Talib Latif
    • 3
  1. 1.Institute for Environment and Development (LESTARI)Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM)BangiMalaysia
  2. 2.Institute for Environment and Development (LESTARI)Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM, The National University of Malaysia)BangiMalaysia
  3. 3.Faculty of Science and TechnologyUniversiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM)BangiMalaysia
  4. 4.Centre for Research and Instrumentation Management (CRIM)Universiti Kebangsaan MalaysiaBangiMalaysia

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