Advertisement

Watershed Pollutants: Risk Assessment and Management of Chemicals and Hazardous Substances

  • Mazlin Mokhtar
  • Goh Choo Ta
  • Lubna Alam
  • Mohd Talib Latif
Chapter

Abstract

Watersheds provide ecological services that benefit flora and fauna, and people are also benefited from the ecological services, particularly for living and development purposes. Hence, watersheds must be managed in holistic and integrated manners to ensure their sustainability. Nonetheless, rapid development has polluted watersheds, and some of the watershed pollutants are chemicals and hazardous substances. This chapter explains the concept of chemical risk and introduces a framework for chemical risk assessment and management that takes into account the importance of human and environmental health. The chapter also discusses chemicals that cause air pollution (such as ground-level ozone and asbestos) and water pollution (such as different types of heavy metals). In the conclusion, this chapter highlights that we cannot avoid dealing with chemicals in our daily life but we can reduce the risks associated with them.

Keywords

Watershed pollutants Chemical risk Chemical assessment Chemical management Pollution 

Notes

Acknowledgement

The authors would like to acknowledge financial support from Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM) via the project codes UKM-DLP-2011-23 and GUP-2015-029, and partial support from ACP JSPS MOHE to Group 3, Grant Number 203/PKT/6720004 (Programme 203/PKT/6724003).

References

  1. Agusa T, Kunito T, Yasunaga G, Iwata H, Subramanian A, Ismail A, andTanabe S (2005) Concentrations of trace elements in marine fish and its risk assessment in Malaysia. Mar Pollut Bull 51(8):896–911CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alam L, Mohamed CAR (2011) Natural radionuclide of Po210 in the edible seafood affected by coal-fired power plant industry in Kapar coastal area of Malaysia. Environ Health 10(1):1–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Azmi SZ, Latif MT, Ismail AS, Juneng L, Jemain AA (2010) Trend and status of air quality at three different monitoring stations in the Klang Valley, Malaysia. Air Qual Atmos Health 3(1):53–64CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bhatia A, Tomer R, Kumar V, Singh SD, Pathak H (2012) Impact of tropospheric ozone on crop growth and productivity – a review. J Sci Ind Res 71(2):97–112Google Scholar
  5. Botkin DB, Keller DA (2010) Environmental science: earth as a living planet, 8th edn. Wiley-India, HobokenGoogle Scholar
  6. Dominick D, Juahir H, Latif MT, Zain SM, Aris AZ (2012) Spatial assessment of air quality patterns in Malaysia using multivariate analysis. Atmos Environ 60:172–181CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. enHealth (2004) Environmental health risk assessment guidelines for assessing human health risks from environmental hazards. Commonwealth of Australia: Department of Health and Ageing and enHealth Council, CanberraGoogle Scholar
  8. Hosgood HD, Lan Q, Vermeulen R, Wei H, Reiss B, Coble J et al (2012) Combustion-derived nanoparticle exposure and household solid fuel use in Xuanwei and Fuyuan, China. Int J Environ Health Res 22(6):571–581CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. IPCS (2004) International programme on chemical safety (IPCS) risk assessment terminology. World Health Organization, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  10. Jones AP (1999) Indoor air quality and health. Atmos Environ 33(28):4535–4564CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Latif MT, Baharudin NH, Velayutham P, Awang N, Hamdan H, Mohamad R et al (2011) Composition of heavy metals and airborne fibers in the indoor environment of a building during renovation. Environ Monit Assess 181(1–4):479–489CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Latif MT, Hey LS, Juneng L (2012) Variations of surface ozone concentration across the Klang Valley, Malaysia. Atmos Environ 61:434–445CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Leong KH, Benjamin Tan LL, Mustafa AM (2007) Contamination levels of selected organochlorine and organophosphate pesticides in the Selangor River, Malaysia between 2002 and 2003. Chemosphere 66(6):1153–1159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Mirsadeghi SA, Zakaria MP, Yap CK, Shahbazi A (2011) Risk assessment for the daily intake of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from the ingestion of cockle (Anadara granosa) and exposure to contaminated water and sediments along the west coast of peninsular Malaysia. J Environ Sci 23(2):336–345CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Mok WJ, Senoo S, Itoh T, Tsukamasa Y, Kawasaki K-i, Ando M (2012) Assessment of concentrations of toxic elements in aquaculture food products in Malaysia. Food Chem 133(4):1326–1332CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Mudway IS, Kelly FJ (2000) Ozone and the lung: a sensitive issue. Mol Asp Med 21(1–2):1–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Naeher LP, Brauer M, Lipsett M, Zelikoff JT, Simpson CD, Koenig JQ et al (2007) Woodsmoke health effects: a review. Inhal Toxicol 19(1):67–106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. National Research Council (2008) Science and decisions: advancing risk assessment. National Academy Press, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  19. Oberdörster G (2001) Pulmonary effects of inhaled ultrafine particles. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 74(1):1–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Oluwole O, Otaniyi OO, Ana GA, Olopade CO (2012) Indoor air pollution from biomass fuels: a major health hazard in developing countries. J Public Health (Ger) 20(6):565–575CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Pacheco-Torgal F (2012) Indoor radon: an overview on a perennial problem. Build Environ 58:270–277CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Pacheco-Torgal F, Jalali S (2011) Toxicity of building materials: a key issue in sustainable construction. Int J Sustain Eng 4(3):281–287CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Rajni K, Keshav K (2010) Water pollution: management, control and treatment. New Age International, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  24. Santhi V, Sakai N, Ahmad E, Mustafa A (2012) Occurrence of bisphenol a in surface water, drinking water and plasma from Malaysia with exposure assessment from consumption of drinking water. Sci Total Environ 427–428:332CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Sudaryanto A, Takahashi S, Iwata H, Tanabe S, Ismail A (2004) Contamination of butyltin compounds in Malaysian marine environments. Environ Pollut 130(3):347–358CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. United Nations (2011) Globally harmonised system of classification and labelling of chemicals, 4th rev edn. United Nations, New York/GenevaGoogle Scholar
  27. US EPA (1998) Ecological risk assessment. US Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  28. US EPA (2012) Basic information, risk assessment portalGoogle Scholar
  29. US EPA (2013) Ground level ozone – health effect. http://www.epa.gov/glo/health.html
  30. Valavanidis A, Fiotakis K, Vlachogianni T (2008) Airborne particulate matter and human health: toxicological assessment and importance of size and composition of particles for oxidative damage and carcinogenic mechanisms. J Environ Sci Health C Environ Carcinog Ecotoxicol Rev 26(4):339–362CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. WHO (2010) WHO human health risk assessment toolkit: chemical hazards. WHO, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  32. Whyte AV, Burton I (1980) Environmental risk assessment. Wiley, New York/Brisbane/TorontoGoogle Scholar
  33. Yamaguchi M, Watanabe M, Matsumura H, Kohno Y, Izuta T (2011) Experimental studies on the effects of ozone on growth and photosynthetic activity of japanese forest tree species. Asian J Atmos Environ 5(2):65–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mazlin Mokhtar
    • 1
  • Goh Choo Ta
    • 2
  • Lubna Alam
    • 2
  • Mohd Talib Latif
    • 3
  1. 1.Institute for Environment and Development (LESTARI)Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM, The National University of Malaysia)BangiMalaysia
  2. 2.Institute for Environment and Development (LESTARI)Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM)BangiMalaysia
  3. 3.Faculty of Science and TechnologyUniversiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM)BangiMalaysia

Personalised recommendations