In this chapter, phosphorus resource flow was analyzed to determine the extent of the dependency of Asian countries on other countries to meet their phosphorus requirements. Additionally, a virtual phosphorus flow analysis was conducted to determine the future phosphorus demand in various Asian countries. The future phosphorus scenarios in Asia are also discussed based on the findings of these analyses. The findings on the basis of virtual phosphorus analysis indicated that from the life cycle perspective, Asian growing economy became to need more and more virtual phosphorus and many Asian countries rely strongly on phosphorus imports via the international trade supply chain. Thus, they realize that high economic and political risks are associated with the secured supply of phosphorus. Another important finding is that besides population growth, urbanization and economic growth in Asia are likely to be strong driving forces for higher phosphorus demand in the future. Considering the untapped P in waste streams, it was clarified that the steelmaking slag should be one of a good target to introduce P recycling technology for two big Asian steel producing countries, China and India. Approximately 7% and 5% of the virtual P-requirement for plant-based food and feed production was lost in China and India, respectively.
Asia Food diet Virtual phosphorus Herfindahl–Hirschman index Steelmaking slag
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Bouwman A, Beusen AHW, Billen G (2009) Human alteration of the global nitrogen and phosphorus soil balances for the period 1970–2050. Glob Biogeochem Cycles 23:16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jeong YS, Matsubae-Yokoyama K, Kubo H, Pak JJ, Nagasaka T (2009) Substance flow analysis of phosphorus and manganese correlated with South Korean steel industry. Resour Conserv Recycl 53:479–489CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Liu Y, Chen JN, Mol APJ, Ayres RU (2007) Comparative analysis of phosphorus use within national and local economies in China. Resour Conserv Recycl 51:454–474CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Matsubae K, Kajiyama J, Hiraki T, Nagasaka T (2011) Virtual phosphorus ore requirement of Japanese economy. Chemosphere 84:767–772CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Matsubae K, Yamasue E, Inazumi T, Webeck E, Miki T, Nagasaka T (2016) Innovations in steelmaking technology and hidden phosphorus flows. Sci Total Environ 542:1162–1168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Matsubae-Yokoyama K, Kubo H, Nakajima K, Nagasaka T (2009) A material flow analysis of phosphorus in Japan: the iron and steel industry as a major phosphorus source. J Ind Ecol 13:687–705CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mihelcic JR, Fry LM, SHAW R (2011) Global potential of phosphorus recovery from human urine and feces. Chemosphere 84:832–839CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Qiao M, Zheng YM, Zhu YG (2011) Material flow analysis of phosphorus through food consumption in two megacities in northern China. Chemosphere 84:773–778CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Satterthwaite D, McGranahan G, Tacoli C (2010) Urbanization and its implications for food and farming. Philos Trans R Soc Lond Ser B Biol Sci 365:2809–2820CrossRefGoogle Scholar
United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs (UNDESA) (2017) World economic and social survey 2017: reflecting on 70 years of development policy analysisGoogle Scholar
Webeck E, Matsubae K, Nakajima K, Nansai K, Nagasaka T (2014a) Analysis of phosphorus dependency in Asia. Sociotechnica 11:119–126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Webeck E, Matsubae K, Nagasaka T (2014b) Phosphorus requirements for the changing diets of China, India and Japan. Environ Econ Policy StudCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Yuan ZW, Shi JK, Wu HJ, Zhang L, Bi J (2011) Understanding the anthropogenic phosphorus pathway with substance flow analysis at the city level. J Environ Manag 92:2021–2028CrossRefGoogle Scholar