• Lin Wang
  • Li-Da Du
  • Guan-Hua DuEmail author


Caffeine is a kind of xanthine alkaloid and mainly found in coffee, tea, Paraguay Holly (Mate), and the fruit or leaf taken from guarana. Caffeine shows the function of dispelling fatigue and exciting nerve. The commonly used clinical preparations include caffeine sodium benzoate and ergotamine caffeine. The adverse reactions include nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and fatigue. Overdose of caffeine will cause damage to the human body. Due to addiction at high dose, caffeine is included in the scope of controlled psychotropic drugs. Caffeine is mainly metabolized in the liver, and only 1–5% of it is excreted as metabolites through urine. Theobromine is the main active metabolite of caffeine and reported to cause activities in the cardiovascular system.


Coffee Alkaloid Addiction 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. and People's Medical Publishing House, PR of China 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Beijing Key Laboratory of Drug Targets Identification and Drug Screening, Centre for Pharmaceutical ScreeningInstitute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical CollegeBeijingChina
  2. 2.School of Biomedical SciencesChinese University of Hong KongHong KongChina

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