In Vitro Morphogenesis of Some Himalayan Flora Using TDZ: A Potential Plant Growth Regulator

  • Nisha Dhiman
  • Nitu Gautam
  • Bhuvnesh Sareen
  • Pooja Kumari
  • Sapna Rajouria
  • Amita Bhattacharya


Thidiazuron or TDZ is a substituted phenylurea derivative, N-phenyl-N′-l, 2, 3-thidiazol-5-ylurea, extensively used in the in vitro morphogenesis of different plant species, including those found in Himalayas. The plants have ranged from the advanced monocotyledonous to dicotyledonous angiospermic plants to gymnosperms and even pteridophytes. While some of these plants are endemic to the Himalayas and are medicinally important, others have been introduced into the region for their immense commercial values. Optimal morphogenic responses obtained in these plants have varied with the concentration of TDZ used and its duration of exposure. These in turn have depended upon the explant and the media used, and also the plant species targeted. While in some cases TDZ alone evoked the desired responses, a combination of TDZ with other PGRs was required in other cases. The findings of these reports have been reviewed in the present article. Attempts have also been made to collate these findings into a ready reckoner for researchers working on in vitro morphogenesis of various plants inhabiting the Himalayas.


Thidiazuron Continuous exposure Somatic embryogenesis Cytokinin-like activity Morphogenesis 


2, 4-D

2, 4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid


Gamborg medium


Benzylamino purine


Douglas-fir cotyledon revised medium




Linsmaier and Skoog medium


Modified rhododendron medium


Murashige and Skoog medium


Naphthalene acetic acid




Plant growth regulator


Protocorm-like bodies






Woody plant medium





The authors thank Director, CSIR-IHBT, Palampur for providing the infrastructure. ND thanks the University Grants Commission, Govt. of India for providing Senior Research Fellowship. NG thanks the Department of Biotechnology, Govt. of India for providing her fellowship; BS thanks the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR), Govt. of India for providing Senior Research Fellowship. The CSIR-IHBT communication number for the present article is 4167.


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© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nisha Dhiman
    • 1
    • 2
  • Nitu Gautam
    • 2
  • Bhuvnesh Sareen
    • 2
  • Pooja Kumari
    • 2
  • Sapna Rajouria
    • 2
  • Amita Bhattacharya
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Academy of Scientific and Innovative ResearchNew DelhiIndia
  2. 2.Division of BiotechnologyCSIR-Institute of Himalayan Bioresource TechnologyPalampurIndia

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