Cooperative Control of Voltage Equalization for Multiple Supercapacitors

  • Ying Yang
  • Yanlin Zhang
  • Yejun Mao
  • Junmin Peng
  • Fangrong Wu
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering book series (LNEE, volume 482)


In this paper, a cooperative voltage equalizer is proposed such that the voltages of supercapacitors in the power source achieve consensus. Voltage equalization for supercapacitors in the power source is a crucial issue since unbalanced voltage states would result in inefficiency and acceleration of lifetime decay. As multiple supercapacitors are connected in certain form, the power source can be modeled as a networked system. In this view, voltage equalization problem can be formulated as a consensus problem of multi-agent system. Combining cooperative control theory and Lyapunov method, a distributed controller is designed for each supercapacitor to drive its voltage synchronized to its neighbors in the network. It is proved that under the topology condition that the graph is connected, all voltages of supercapacitors can achieve consensus, i.e., voltage equalization of the power source is achieved. Simulation result has been presented to verify the effectiveness of the proposed controller.


Supercapacitor Voltage equalization Consensus Cooperative control 


  1. 1.
    Allegre AL, Bouscayrol A, Delarue P et al (2010) Energy storage system with supercapacitor for an innovative subway. IEEE Trans Indust Electron 57(12):4001–4012CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Linzen D, Buller S, Karden E et al (2005) Analysis and evaluation of charge-balancing circuits on performance, reliability, and lifetime of supercapacitor systems. IEEE Trans Ind Appl 41(5):1135–1141CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Uno M, Tanaka K (2013) Single-switch multioutput charger using voltage multiplier for series-connected lithium–ion battery/supercapacitor equalization. IEEE Trans Industr Electron 60(8):3227–3239CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Satou D, Hoshi N, Haruna J (2014) Characteristics of cell voltage equalization circuit using LC series circuit in charging and discharging states. In: Industrial electronics society, IECON 2013—Conference of the IEEE, IEEE, pp 514–519Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Liu J, Huang Z, Peng J et al (2015) Distributed cooperative voltage equalization for series-connected super-capacitors. In: American control conference, IEEE, pp 4523–4528Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Wei T, Jia D (2014) Characteristics and design method of supercapacitor modules with voltage equalization circuit. In: IEEE, conference on industrial electronics and applications, IEEE, pp 6–11Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Xu A, Xie S, Liu X (2009) Dynamic voltage equalization for series-connected ultracapacitors in EV/HEV applications. IEEE Trans Veh Technol 58(8):3981–3987CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Hussain A, Lee H, Sul SK (2013) Forward fly-back voltage balancing circuit for series connected super capacitors using digital control. In: International conference on renewable energy research and applications, IEEE, pp 377–382Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Baughman AC, Ferdowsi M (2008) Double-tiered switched-capacitor battery charge equalization technique. IEEE Trans Industr Electron 55(6):2277–2285CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Shamma J (2007) Cooperative control of distributed multi-agent system. Wiley, HobokenGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Cao Y, Yu W, Ren W et al (2012) An overview of recent progress in the study of distributed multi-agent coordination. IEEE Trans Industr Inf 9(1):427–438CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Andreasson M, Dimarogonas DV, Sandberg H et al (2014) Distributed control of networked dynamical systems: static feedback, integral action and consensus. IEEE Trans Autom Control 59(7):1750–1764MathSciNetCrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Murray RM (2007) Recent research in cooperative control of multivehicle systems. J Dyn Syst Meas Control 129(3):571–583CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Olfati-Saber R (2006) Flocking on multi-agent dynamic systems: algorithms and theory. IEEE Trans Autom Control 51(3):401–420MathSciNetCrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Ren W, Beard R (2008) Distributed consensus in multi-vehicle cooperative control: theory and applications. Springer, LondonCrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Qu Z (2009) Cooperative control of dynamical systems: applications to autonomous vehicles. Springer, LondonzbMATHGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ying Yang
    • 1
  • Yanlin Zhang
    • 1
  • Yejun Mao
    • 1
  • Junmin Peng
    • 1
  • Fangrong Wu
    • 1
  1. 1.CRRC Zhuzhou Locomotive Co., Ltd.ZhuzhouPeople’s Republic of China

Personalised recommendations