Advertisement

Equity Policy Instruments

  • Tebeje MollaEmail author
Chapter
Part of the Education Policy & Social Inequality book series (EPSI, volume 2)

Abstract

When it comes to basic life and health conditions, inequalities in a society fall under material and symbolic resources such as recognition and respect (Baker, Lynch, Cantillon, & Walsh, 2009; Therborn, 2006). Education is a symbolic resource associated with material returns. Lack of access to education directly relates to what Goran Therborn calls existential inequality that ‘allocates freedom and unfreedom in the pursuit of personal life projects, rights, and prohibitions to act, and distributes affirmations and denials of recognition and respect’ (Therborn, 2006, p. 7).

References

  1. Arendale, D. R. (2010). Special Issue: Access at the crossroads–Learning assistance in higher education. ASHE Higher Education Report, 35(6), 1–145.Google Scholar
  2. Ashcroft, K. (2004). The introduction of a funding formula for teaching and learning in higher education institutions in Ethiopia. Advisory document prepared for the ministry of education of Ethiopia. Retrieved on November 23, 2011 from http://ashcroftandrayner.co.uk/Research_Papers-Kate%20Ashcroft.htm.
  3. Baker, J., Lynch, K., Cantillon, S., & Walsh, J. (2009). Equality: From theory to action (2nd ed.). Basingstoke: Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bloom, D., Canning, D., & Chan, K. (2006). Higher education and economic development in Africa. Washington DC: The World Bank.Google Scholar
  5. Connell, R. (2009). Gender: In world perspective (2nd ed.). Cambridge: Polity.Google Scholar
  6. Dewey, J. (1915). The school and society (Revised ed.). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  7. ECA [Economic Commission for Africa]. (2009). Report on selected practices on gender mainstreaming, Ethiopia. Compendium of emerging good practices in gender mainstreaming (Vol. 2, pp. 53–75). Addis Ababa: ECA.Google Scholar
  8. FDRE [Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia]. (2002). Yemsfetsem akim ginbata (capacity building) strategy and programs. Addis Ababa: Ministry of Information.Google Scholar
  9. FDRE [Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia]. (2003). Council of Ministers Higher Education Cost-sharing Regulations (No. 91/2003). In Federal Negarit Gazeta. Addis Ababa: Berhanena Selam Printing Enterprise.Google Scholar
  10. FDRE [Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia]. (2009). Higher Education Proclamation (No. 650/2009). Federal Negarit Gazeta, 15th Year (No 64, pp. 4976–5044).Google Scholar
  11. FDRE [Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia]. (August 1995). The constitution of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia. Federal Negarit Gazeta, 1(1), 73–142.Google Scholar
  12. Gordon, R. (1996). Legislation and educational policy in Zimbabwe: The state and the reproduction of patriarchy. Gender and Education, 8(2), 215–230.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. IBE [International Bureau of Education]. (1957). Ethiopia. International yearbook of education, 19(190), 153–157.Google Scholar
  14. Maassen, P., & Cloete, N. (2006). Global reform trends in higher education. In N. Cloete, R. Fehnel, P. Maassen, T. Moja, H. Perold, & T. Gibbon (Eds.), Transformation in higher education: Global pressures and local realities (pp. 7–34). Dordrecht: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. MoE [Ministry of Education]. (1975). Report on educational development in Ethiopia 1973/74 and 1974/75. Addis Ababa: MoE.Google Scholar
  16. MoE [Ministry of Education]. (1984). Education in socialist Ethiopia: Origins, reorientation, strategy for development. Addis Ababa: MoE.Google Scholar
  17. MoE [Ministry of Education]. (1992). Report on educational development, 1990–1992. Addis Ababa: MoE.Google Scholar
  18. MoE [Ministry of Education]. (1998). Education sector development program (action plan) I (ESDP I). Addis Ababa: MoE.Google Scholar
  19. MoE [Ministry of Education]. (2000). Education statistics annual abstract 1998/99. Addis Ababa: MoE.Google Scholar
  20. MoE [Ministry of Education]. (2001). Education statistics annual abstract 1999/00. Addis Ababa: MoE.Google Scholar
  21. MoE [Ministry of Education]. (2002). Education statistics annual abstract 2000/01. Addis Ababa: MoE.Google Scholar
  22. MoE [Ministry of Education]. (2002). The education and training policy and its implementation. Addis Ababa: MoE.Google Scholar
  23. MoE [Ministry of Education]. (2003). Education statistics annual abstract 2001/02. Addis Ababa: MoE.Google Scholar
  24. MoE [Ministry of Education]. (2004). Education statistics annual abstract 2002/03. Addis Ababa: MoE.Google Scholar
  25. MoE [Ministry of Education]. (2004). Five-year strategic framework for enhancing women’s participation in tertiary education in Ethiopia. Addis Ababa: MoE.Google Scholar
  26. MoE [Ministry of Education]. (2005). Education statistics annual abstract 2003/04. Addis Ababa: MoE.Google Scholar
  27. MoE [Ministry of Education]. (2006). Education statistics annual abstract 2004/05. Addis Ababa: MoE.Google Scholar
  28. MoE [Ministry of Education]. (2007). Education Statistics Annual Abstract 2005/06. Addis Ababa: MoE.Google Scholar
  29. MoE [Ministry of Education]. (2008). Education statistics annual abstract 2006/07. Addis Ababa: MoE.Google Scholar
  30. MoE [Ministry of Education]. (2008). National report of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia on development of education and inclusive education. Addis Ababa: MoE.Google Scholar
  31. MoE [Ministry of Education]. (2009). Education statistics annual abstract 2007/08. Addis Ababa: MoE.Google Scholar
  32. MoE [Ministry of Education]. (2010). Education sector development program (action plan) IV (ESDP IV). Addis Ababa: MoE.Google Scholar
  33. MoE [Ministry of Education]. (2010). Education statistics annual abstract 2008/09. Addis Ababa: MoE.Google Scholar
  34. MoE [Ministry of Education]. (2011). Education statistics annual abstract 2009/10. Addis Ababa: MoE.Google Scholar
  35. MoE [Ministry of Education]. (2012). Education statistics annual abstract 2010/11. Addis Ababa: MoE.Google Scholar
  36. MoE [Ministry of Education]. (2013). Education statistics annual abstract 2011/12. Addis Ababa: MoE.Google Scholar
  37. MoE [Ministry of Education]. (2014). Education statistics annual abstract 2012/13. Addis Ababa: MoE.Google Scholar
  38. MoE [Ministry of Education]. (2015). Education statistics annual abstract 2013/14. Addis Ababa: MoE.Google Scholar
  39. MoE [Ministry of Education]. (2016). Education statistics annual abstract 2014/15. Addis Ababa: MoE.Google Scholar
  40. MoEFA [Ministry of Education and Fine Arts]. (1973). Report on the organization of education in Ethiopia, 1971/2 and 1972/3. Addis Ababa: MoEFA.Google Scholar
  41. Molla, T. (2013). The neoliberal policy agenda of the World Bank and higher education reform in Ethiopia: The problem of inequality in focus (Unpublished Ph.D. thesis). Monash University, Australia.Google Scholar
  42. Pero (Pseud.). (1972). Which way Ethiopia? Problems of an African educational system. Mansfield College Magazine, Oxford (175), 4–7.Google Scholar
  43. Rawls, J. (1999). A theory of justice (Revised ed.). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  44. Saint, W. (2004). Higher education in Ethiopia: The vision and its challenges. Journal of Higher Education in Africa, 2(3), 83–113. Google Scholar
  45. Semela, T. (2011). Breakneck expansion and quality assurance in Ethiopian higher education: Ideological rationales and economic impediments. Higher Education Policy, 24(3), 399–425.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. TGE [Transitional Government of Ethiopia]. (1993). National policy on Ethiopian women. Addis Ababa: Office of Women’s Affairs.Google Scholar
  47. TGE [Transitional Government of Ethiopia]. (1994). An economic development strategy for Ethiopia. Addis Ababa: TGE.Google Scholar
  48. Thomas, L (2002). Student retention in higher education: The role of institutional habitus. Journal of Educational Policy, 17(4), 423–442. Google Scholar
  49. Therborn, G. (2006). Meaning, mechanisms, patterns, and forces: An introduction. In G. Therborn (Ed.), Inequalities in the world (pp. 1–58). London: Verso.Google Scholar
  50. Tinto, V. (1975). Dropout from higher education: A theoretical synthesis of recent research. Review of Educational Research, 45(1), 89–125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Tinto, V. (1998). Colleges as communities: Taking research on student persistence seriously. The Review of Higher Education, 21(2), 167–177.Google Scholar
  52. Tinto, V. (2012). Completing college: Rethinking institutional action. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. UIS [UNESCO Institute for Statistics]. (2009). Global education digest 2009. Comparing education statistics across the World. Montreal: UIS.Google Scholar
  54. UIS [UNESCO Institute for Statistics]. (2010). Global education digest 2010, comparing education statistics across the World. Montreal: UIS.Google Scholar
  55. UN [United Nations]. (1981). Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW). Geneva: Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR).Google Scholar
  56. UN [United Nations]. (1995). The Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action. Report of the Fourth World Conference on Women, Beijing, 4–15 September. New York: UN.Google Scholar
  57. UN [United Nations Organization]. (1996). Report of the Fourth World Conference on Women, Beijing, 4–15 September 1995. New York: UN.Google Scholar
  58. UNESCO [United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization]. (1998). World declaration on higher education for the twenty-first century: Vision and action; and framework for priority action for change and development in higher education. Paris: UNESCO.Google Scholar
  59. UNESCO [United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization]. (2000). Dakar Framework for Action-Education For All: Meeting our collective commitments in World Education Forum. Dakar, Senegal: UNESCO. Google Scholar
  60. UN General Assembly. (2000). Millennium declaration, resolution 55/2. Retrieved January 23, 2014 from http://www.un.org/millennium/declaration/ares552e.htm.
  61. Vickers, J. (2002). Thinking about violence. In V. Dhruvarajan & J. Vickers (Eds.), Gender, race and nation: A global approach (pp. 222–246). Toronto: University of Toronto Press.Google Scholar
  62. Wagaw, T. G. (2001). The conflict of ethnic identity and the language of education policy in contemporary Ethiopia. In International Conference on African Development Archives (Paper 31). Retrieved February 2, 2014 from http://scholarworks.wmich.edu/africancenter_icad_archive/31.
  63. World Bank. (2002). Constructing knowledge societies: New challenges for tertiary education. Washington DC: The World Bank.Google Scholar
  64. World Bank. (2003). Higher education for Ethiopia: Pursuing the vision. Washington DC: The World Bank.Google Scholar
  65. World Education Forum. (1990). World declaration on Education For All: Meeting basic learning needs. In World Conference on Education for All. Jomtien, Thailand: UNESCO.Google Scholar
  66. World Bank. (2009). Accelerating catch-up: Tertiary education for growth in sub-Saharan Africa. Washington DC: The World Bank.Google Scholar
  67. World Education Forum. (2000). Dakar Framework for Action-Education For All: Meeting our collective commitments in World Education Forum. Dakar, Senegal: UNESCO.Google Scholar
  68. Yizengaw, T. (2007). The Ethiopian higher education: Creating space for reform. Addis Ababa: St. Mary’s Printing Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Deakin UniversityGeelongAustralia

Personalised recommendations