Aid and Reform

  • Tebeje MollaEmail author
Part of the Education Policy & Social Inequality book series (EPSI, volume 2)


The post-2000 international development discourse has been dominated by what can be characterized as knowledge economy optimism (as echoed in the World Bank’s statement in the opening quote above). The new enthusiasm about economic value of knowledge was linked with national poverty reduction efforts.


  1. Abegaz, B. (1999). Aid and reform in Ethiopia. Washington DC: the World Bank.Google Scholar
  2. Abegaz, B. (2001). Ethiopia. In S. Devarajan, D. Dollar & T. Holmgren (Eds.), Aid and reform in Africa: Lessons from ten case studies (pp. 167–226). Washington DC: the World Bank.Google Scholar
  3. Apple, M. (2012). Can education change society?. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  4. Barnett, M., & Finnemore, M. (2005). The power of liberal international organisations. In M. Barnett & R. Duvall (Eds.), Power in global governance. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  5. Barnett, M. N., & Finnemore, M. (1999). The politics, power, and pathologies of international organizations. International Organization, 53(4), 699–732.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bourdieu, P. (1989). Social space and symbolic power. Sociological Theory, 7(1), 14–25.
Google Scholar
  7. Bourdieu, P. (1991). Language and symbolic power (J. Thompson, Ed. & Intro.; G. Raymond & M. Adamson, Trans.). Cambridge: Polity Press.
Google Scholar
  8. Chapman, B. (1999). Reform of ethiopian higher education financing: Conceptual and policy issues (Consultants Report). Economics of education series 2. Washington DC: the World Bank.Google Scholar
  9. Clancy, P. (2010). Measuring access and equity from a comparative perspective. In H. Eggins (Ed.), Access and equity: Comparative perspective (pp. 69–102). Rotterdam: Sense Publishers.Google Scholar
  10. Clapham, C. (2009). Post-war Ethiopia: The trajectories of crisis. Review of African Political Economy, 36(120), 181–192.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Clark, B. R. (1998). Creating entrepreneurial universities: Organizational pathways of transformation. Oxford: Pergamon Press.Google Scholar
  12. Clark, B. R. (2004). Sustaining change in universities: Continuities in case studies and concepts. Maidenhead: Society for Research into Higher Education & Open University Press.Google Scholar
  13. Committee of Inquiry. (2004). Higher education system overhaul (HESO): Report of the Committee of Inquiry into governance, leadership and management in Ethiopia’s higher education system (Unpublished Report).Google Scholar
  14. Dale, R. (1999). Specifying globalization effects on national policy: A focus on the mechanisms. Journal of Education Policy, 14(1), 1–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Dale, R. (2000). Globalization and education: Demonstrating “common world educational culture” or locating a “globally structured educational agenda”? Educational Theory, 50(4), 427–448.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Drucker, P. F. (1969). The age of discontinuity: Guidelines to our changing society. London: Heinemann.Google Scholar
  17. FDRE [Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia]. (2002). Yemsfetsem akim ginbata (capacity building) strategy and programs. Addis Ababa: Ministry of Information.Google Scholar
  18. FDRE [Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia]. (2003). Higher Education Proclamation No. 351/2003. Federal Negarit Gazeta, 9(72), 2235–2263.Google Scholar
  19. FDRE [Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia]. (2009). Higher Education Proclamation (No. 650/2009). Federal Negarit Gazeta, 15th year, No. 64, 4976–5044.Google Scholar
  20. Habte, A. (1975). Changing relationships in international co-operation. Prospects, 5(1), 12–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Habte, A. (1999). The future of international aid to education: a personal reflection. In K. King & L. Buchert (Eds.), Changing international aid to education: Global patterns and national context (pp. 46–59). Paris: UNESCO.Google Scholar
  22. Harbison, F. H. (1973). The development of nation-wide learning systems: A sector approach for assessment of national development from a human resources perspective. Discussion paper No. 37. Research Program in Economic Development, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey.Google Scholar
  23. Harrison, G. (2004). The World Bank and Africa: The construction of governance states. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  24. Heyneman, S. P. (2003). The history and problems in the making of education policy at the World Bank 1960–2000. International Journal of Educational Development, 23(3), 315–337.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Jones, P. W. (1997). On World Bank education financing. Comparative Education, 33(1), 117–129.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Jones, P. W. (2007). World Bank financing education: Lending, learning and development (2nd ed.). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  27. Kiros, F. R. (1990). Implementing educational policies in Ethiopia. World Bank Discussion Papers—African Technical Department Series No. 84. Washington DC: The World Bank.Google Scholar
  28. Klees, S. (2002). World Bank education policy: New rhetoric, old ideology. International Journal of Educational Development, 22(5), 451–474.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Klees, S. (2010). Aid, development, and education. Current Issues in Comparative Education, 13(1), 7–28.Google Scholar
  30. Klein, N. (2007). The shock doctrine: The rise of disaster capitalism. New York: Metropolitan Books.Google Scholar
  31. Maassen, P., & Cloete, N. (2006). Global reform trends in higher education. In N. Cloete, R. Fehnel, P. Maassen, T. Moja, H. Perold, & T. Gibbon (Eds.), Transformation in higher education: Global pressures and local realities (pp. 7–34). Dordrecht: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Machlup, F. (1962). The production and distribution of knowledge in the United States. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  33. Marginson, S. (1997). Steering from a distance: Power relations in Australian higher Education. Higher Education, 34(1), 63–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Merisotis, J. (2003). Higher education funding in Ethiopia: An assessment and guidance for next steps. Report prepared for the World Bank by Institute for Higher Education Policy, Washington DC: Institute for Higher Education Policy.Google Scholar
  35. MoE [Ministry of Education]. (1998). Education sector development program (action plan) I (ESDP I). Addis Ababa: MoE.Google Scholar
  36. MoE [Ministry of Education]. (2002). The education and training policy and its implementation. Addis Ababa: MoE.Google Scholar
  37. MoE [Ministry of Education]. (2005). Education sector development program (action plan) III (ESDP III). Addis Ababa: MoE.Google Scholar
  38. MoE [Ministry of Education]. (2008). Annual intake and enrolment growth and professional program mix of Ethiopian public higher education: Strategy and conversion plan (2001–2005 E.C). Addis Ababa: MoE.Google Scholar
  39. MoE [Ministry of Education]. (2010). Education Sector Development Program IV (ESDP IV, 2010/2011–2014/2015), program action plan. Addis Ababa: MoE.Google Scholar
  40. MoE [Ministry of Education]. (2015). Education statistics annual abstract 2013/14. Addis Ababa: MoE.Google Scholar
  41. MoEFA [Ministry of Education and Fine Arts]. (1972). Report of the education sector review: Education challenge to the nation. Addis Ababa: MoEFA.Google Scholar
  42. MoFED [Ministry of Finance and Economic Development]. (2002). Ethiopia: Sustainable development and poverty reduction program. Addis Ababa: MoFED.Google Scholar
  43. MoFED [Ministry of Finance and Economic Development]. (2006). Ethiopia: Building on progress—A plan for accelerated and sustainable development to end poverty. Addis Ababa: MoFED.Google Scholar
  44. MoFED [Ministry of Finance and Economic Development]. (2010). Growth and transformation plan. Addis Ababa: MoFED.Google Scholar
  45. Molla, T. (2013a). External policy influence and higher education reform in Ethiopia: Understanding symbolic power of the World Bank. International Journal of Sociology of Education, 2(2), 165–190.Google Scholar
  46. Molla, T. (2013b). The neoliberal policy agenda of the World Bank and higher education reform in Ethiopia: The problem of inequality in focus. Unpublished Ph.D. thesis, Monash University, Australia.Google Scholar
  47. Molla, T. (2014a). ‘Knowledge aid’ as instrument of regulation: World Bank’s non-lending higher education support for Ethiopia. Comparative Education, 50(2), 229–248.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Molla, T. (2014b). Knowledge-based policy regulation of the World Bank and higher education reform in Ethiopia: Instruments and consequences. In E. Mangez, J. Ozga, & T. Fenwick (Eds.), Governing knowledge: Comparison, knowledge-based technologies and expertise in the regulation of education—World Yearbook of Education 2014 (pp. 86–100). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  49. Moretti, F., & Pestre, D. (2015). Bankspeak: The language of World Bank reports, 1946–2012. Pamphlets of the Stanford Literary Lab, No. 9.Google Scholar
  50. Moutsios, S. (2009). International organizations and transnational education policy. Compare: A Journal of Comparative and International Education, 39(4), 469–481.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Moutsios, S. (2010). Power, politics and transnational policy-making in education. Globalisation, Societies and Education, 8(1), 121–141.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Neave, G. (1998). The evaluative state reconsidered. European Journal of Education, 33(3), 265–284.Google Scholar
  53. NICHE [Netherlands Initiative for Capacity Development in Higher Education]. (2009). Netherlands initiative for capacity development in higher education (NICHE) in Ethiopia (2009–2912). Retrieved on January 10, 2010.Google Scholar
  54. OECD [Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development]. (1996). The knowledge-based economy. STI Outlook. Paris: OECD Publishing.Google Scholar
  55. OECD [Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development]. (1997). Thematic review of the first years of tertiary education: comparative report (draft report). Paris: OECD Publishing.Google Scholar
  56. OECD [Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development]. (1999). The knowledge-based economy: A set of facts and figures. Paris: OECD Publishing.Google Scholar
  57. Office of Chief Scientist. (2016). Australia’s STEM workforce. Canberra: Commonwealth of Australia.Google Scholar
  58. Ozga, J., & Grek, S. (2012). Governing through learning: School self-Evaluation as a knowledge-based regulatory tool. Recherches sociologiques et anthropologiques, 43(2), 35–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Saint, W. (2004). Higher education in Ethiopia: The vision and its challenges. Journal of Higher Education in Africa, 2(3), 83–113.Google Scholar
  60. Salerno, C. (2006). Cost sharing in higher education financing: Economic perils in developing countries. International Higher Education, 43, 7–9.Google Scholar
  61. Salmi, J., & Bassett, R. (2010). Transforming higher education in developing countries: The role of the World Bank. In P. Peterson, E. Baker, & B. McGaw (Eds.), International encyclopaedia of education (Vol. 4, pp. 590–596). Oxford: Elsevier Ltd.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Salmi, J., Hopper, R., & Basset, R. (2009). Transforming higher education in developing countries: The role of the World Bank. In R. Bassett & A. Maldonado (Eds.), International organizations and higher education policy: Thinking globally, acting locally? (pp.99–112). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  63. Samoff, J. (1992). The Intellectual/financial complex of foreign aid. Review of Africa Political Economy, 53, 60–75.Google Scholar
  64. Samoff, J. (2014). Embedding dependence: Education for underdevelopment. Paper prepared for presentation at the 23rd World Congress of the International Political Science Association, Montreal, 19-24 July 2014. Retrieved on September 20, 2015 from
  65. Schwab, K. (Ed.). (2012). The global competitiveness report 2012/13. Geneva: World Economic Forum.Google Scholar
  66. Semela, T., & Ayalew, E. (2008). Ethiopia. In D. Teferra & J. Knight (Eds.), Higher education in Africa: The international dimension (pp. 159–207). Chestnut Hill, MA: Centre for International Higher Education, Boston College.Google Scholar
  67. TFHES [Task Force on Higher Education and Society]. (2000). Higher education in developing countries: Peril and promise. Washington DC: The World Bank.Google Scholar
  68. The Kigali Communique. (2014). Higher education for science, technology and innovation: Accelerating Africa’s aspirations. Retrieved June 23, 2014, from
  69. UIS [UNESCO Institute for Statistics]. (Database1). Enrolment patterns. Retrieved on May 18, 2012 from
  70. UNESCO [United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization]. (1967). Reading materials for use in teaching about Eastern cultures: Ethiopia. Major project on mutual appreciation of Eastern and Western cultural values. Paris: UNESCO.Google Scholar
  71. UNESCO [United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization]. (1996). The Delors report on “learning: The treasure within”. Paris: UNESCO.Google Scholar
  72. Van Vught, A. (1996). Isomorphism in higher education? Towards a theory of differentiation and diversity in higher education systems. In V. L. Meek, L. Geodegebuure, O. Kivinen, & R. Rinne (Eds.), The mockers and the mocked: Comparative perspectives on differentiation, convergence and diversity in higher education (pp. 42–58). Oxford: Pergamon.Google Scholar
  73. Wacquant, L. (2012). Three steps to a historical anthropology of actually existing neoliberalism. Social Anthropology, 20(1), 66–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. WEF [World Economic Forum]. (2017). The global competitiveness report 2016/17. Geneva: WEF.Google Scholar
  75. World Bank. (1973). Ethiopia—Third education project. (Project appraisal report No., 190-ET). Washington DC: the World Bank.Google Scholar
  76. World Bank. (1994). Higher education: The lessons of experience. Washington, DC: the World Bank.Google Scholar
  77. World Bank. (1998). Ethiopia: Education Sector Development Program (Project Appraisal, Report No: 17739-ET). Washington DC: the World Bank.Google Scholar
  78. World Bank. (1999). Knowledge for development—World Development Report 1998/99. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  79. World Bank. (2000). Can Africa claim the 21st century? Washington DC: the World Bank.Google Scholar
  80. World Bank. (2001). Engendering development through gender equality in rights, resources, and voices. Washington DC: The World Bank & Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  81. World Bank. (2002). Constructing knowledge societies: New challenges for tertiary education. Washington DC: the World Bank.Google Scholar
  82. World Bank. (2003a). Ethiopia—Country assistance strategy. Washington DC: the World Bank.Google Scholar
  83. World Bank. (2003b). Higher education for Ethiopia: Pursuing the vision. Washington DC: the World Bank.Google Scholar
  84. World Bank. (2004). Improving tertiary education in sub-Saharan Africa: Things that work! Washington DC: the World Bank.Google Scholar
  85. World Bank. (2005). Education in Ethiopia: Strengthening the foundation for sustainable progress. Washington DC: The World Bank.Google Scholar
  86. World Bank. (2006). Ethiopia: Country assistance strategy. Washington DC: the World Bank.Google Scholar
  87. World Bank. (2007a). A guide to the World Bank (2nd ed.). Washington DC: the World Bank.Google Scholar
  88. World Bank. (2007b). Building knowledge economies: Advanced strategies for development. Washington DC: the World Bank.Google Scholar
  89. World Bank. (2007c). EthiopiaGeneral education quality improvement project I. (Project information Report No., AC3128). Washington DC: the World Bank.Google Scholar
  90. World Bank. (2008). Ethiopia – Country Assistance Strategy. Washington DC: The World Bank.Google Scholar
  91. World Bank. (2009). Accelerating catch-up: Tertiary education for growth in sub-Saharan Africa. Washington DC: the World Bank.Google Scholar
  92. World Bank. (2010). Post-secondary education project: Implementation completion and results report (Report No. RICR00001285). Washington DC: The World Bank.Google Scholar
  93. World Bank. (2013). Ethiopia—General education quality improvement project II. (Project information Report No: PAD476). Washington DC: the World Bank.Google Scholar
  94. World Bank. (Database 1). IDA Terms. Retrieved on February 19, 2012 from
  95. Yizengaw, T. (2006). Government-donor relationships in preparation and implementations of the ESDPs of Ethiopia. A background paper prepared for the EFA Global Monitoring Report 2007, UNESCO. Retrieved on March 25, 2010 from
  96. Yizengaw, T. (2007). The Ethiopian higher education: Creating space for reform. Addis Ababa: St. Mary’s Printing Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Deakin UniversityGeelongAustralia

Personalised recommendations