The Fourth Phase of Water: Implications for Energy, Life, and Health



Water is known to have three phases, solid, liquid, and vapor. However, we discovered a fourth phase, lying in between solid and liquid. While the evidence for this phase is relatively new, the concept of a fourth, ordered, phase of water dates back at least a century. This recently identified phase carries with it considerable explanatory power for diverse disciplines, a sampling of which is offered here.


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© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of WashingtonSeattleUSA

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