Agroforestry pp 163-187 | Cite as

Agroforestry Practices in Temperate Regions of the World

  • D. R. Bhardwaj
  • Mansi R. Navale
  • Sandeep Sharma
Chapter

Abstract

Temperate agroforestry systems are being practiced in the continents, like North America, Europe, highlands of the Asia, Oceania and Chile and Argentina of the South America. Distinct seasonality of the temperate regions has given rise to agroforestry practices, like windbreaks and shelterbelts, silvopastoral systems, forest grazing, woodlots, intercropped orchards and agri-horti-silviculture systems. The main tree species of agroforestry systems in the temperate parts of the world are Pinus radiata, Populus spp., Salix spp., Eucalyptus spp., Paulownia spp. and Robinia pseudoacacia and various fruit tree species, like apple, plum, apricot, peach and pear. Temperate agroforestry systems, though less diverse than tropical agroforestry systems, are playing an important role in income generation, climatic modification and biodiversity conservation.

Keywords

Agroforestry practices Temperate agroforestry Silvopastoral systems Windbreaks Forest woodlots Carbon sequestration Biodiversity conservation 

References

  1. Amatya G, Chang SX, Beare MH, Mead DJ (2002) Soil properties under Pinus radiata-ryegrass silvopastoral system in New Zealand. Part II. C and N of soil microbial biomass, and soil N dynamics. Agrofor Syst 54(2):149–160CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Anderson GW, Moore RW, Jenkins PJ (1988) The integration of pasture, livestock and widely-spaced pine in South West Western Australia. Agroforestry Systems 6(1-3):195–211CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Balain E, Naiman RJ (2005) Abundance and production of dominant riparian trees in the lowland floodplain of the Queets River, Washington. Ecosystems 8(7):841–861CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Baldy C, Dupraz C, Schilizzi S (1993) Vers de nouvellesagroforestriesen climate climatstemperes et Mediterraneans. Premiere partie: aspects agronomiques. Cahiers Agricultures 2:375–386Google Scholar
  5. Bari MA, Schofield NJ (1991) Effects of agroforestry-pasture associations on groundwater level and salinity. Agrofor Syst 16(1):13–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Brandle JR, Hoghes L, Zhou XH (2004) Windbreaks in North American agricultural systems. Agrofor Syst 61(1):65–68Google Scholar
  7. Brandle JR, Hodges L, Tyndall J, Sudmeyer RA (2009) Windbreak practices. In: Garret HE (ed) North American agroforestry, an integrated science and practice, 2nd edn. American Society of Agronomy, Madison, pp 75–104Google Scholar
  8. Cervinka V, Finch C, Jorgensen G, Karajeh F, Martin M, Menzies F, Tanji K (1994) Agroforestry as a method of salt and selenium management on irrigated land. Westside RCD, Department of Food and Agriculture USDA/SCS, FresnoGoogle Scholar
  9. Colletti J, Mize C, Schultz R, Faltonson R, Skadberg A, Mottila J, Thompson M, Scharf R, Anderson I, Accola C, Buxton D, Brown R (1994) An alley cropping biofuels system: operation economics. In: Schultz RC, Colletti JP (eds) Opportunities for agroforestry in the temperate zone worldwide: Proceedings of the third North American Agroforestry conference, August 15–18 1993. Department of Forestry, Iowa State University, AmesGoogle Scholar
  10. de Montard FX (1988) Etude des espaces pastoraux sous couvert forestier en moyenne montagne humide. Application a la Margeride. In: Hubert B, Girault N (eds) De la Touffe d’Herbe au Paysage. INRA-SAD, ParisGoogle Scholar
  11. Dresner S, Ekins P, McGeevor K, Tomei J (2007) Forest and climate change global understandings and possible responses. In: Freer-Smith PH, Boradmeadow MSJ, Lynch JM (eds) Forestry and climate change. CAB International, Wallingford, pp 38–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Dube F, Thevathasan NV, Zagal E, Gordon AM, Stolpe NB, Espinosa M (2011) Carbon sequestration potential of silvipastoral system in Chilean Patagonia. In: Kumar BM, Nair PKR (eds) Carbon sequestration potential of agroforestry systems- opportunities and challenges. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 101–127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Dupraz C, Newman SM (1997) Temperate agroforestry: the European way. CAB International-Press, Wallingford, pp 181–230Google Scholar
  14. Feldhake CM, Schumann CM (2005) Tree establishment for a temperate agroforest in central Appalachia, USA. Agrofor Syst 65(3):187–195CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Felger RS (1979) Ancient crops for twenty-first century. In: Ritchie GA (ed) New agricultural crops, symposium no 38. American Association for Advancement of Science, Westview, Boulder, pp 5–20Google Scholar
  16. Felkar P (1979) Mesquite: an all-purpose leguminous arid land tree. In: Ritchie GA (ed) New agricultural crops, symposium no 38. American Association for Advancement of Science, Westview, Boulder, pp 89–125Google Scholar
  17. Gadgil RL, Charlton JFL, Sandberg AM, Allan PJ (1986) Relative growth and persistence of planted legumes in a mid-rotation radiata pine plantation. Forest Ecol Manag 14(3):113–124CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Garrett HE, Rietveld WJ, Fisher RF, Kral DM, Viney MK (2000) North American agroforestry: an integrated science and practices. American Society of Agronomy, Madison, pp 132–162Google Scholar
  19. Giddens M, Parfitt RL, Percival HJ (1997) Comparison of some soil properties under Pinus radiata and improved pasture. N Z J Agric Res 40(3):409–416CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Giese LAB, Aust WM, Kolka RK, Trettin CC (2003) Biomass and carbon pools of disturbed riparian forests. Forest Ecol Manag 180(1–3):493–508CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Gordon AM, Newman SM (1997) Temperate agroforestry systems. CAB International Press, Wallingford, p 264Google Scholar
  22. Gordon AM, Thevathasan NV (2005) How much carbon can be stored in Canadian agroecosystems using silvipastoral approach? In: Mosquera-Losada MR, McAdam J, Riguiero-Rodriguez A (eds) Silvipastoralism and sustainable land management. CABI Publishing, Wallingford, pp 210–218Google Scholar
  23. Gordon AM, Williams PA, Taylor EP (1989) Site index curves for Norway spruce in Southern Ontario. North J Appl For 6(1):23–26Google Scholar
  24. Halls LK, Burton GW, Southwell BL (1957) Some results of seeding and fertilization to improve Southern forest ranges. USDA Forest Service Southeastern Forest Experimentation Station. Research Paper No. 78 AshvilleGoogle Scholar
  25. Hart RH, Lewis CE, Monson WG (1970) Effect of nitrogen and shading on yield and quality of grasses grown under young slash pines. Agron J 62:285–287CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Hawke MF, Knowles RL (1997) Temperate agroforestry systems in New Zealand. In: Gordon AM, Newman SM (eds) Temperate agroforestry systems. CAB International, LondonGoogle Scholar
  27. Houghton RA, Hackler JL (2000) Changes in the terrestrial carbon storage in the United States. 1. The role of agriculture and forestry. Glob Ecol Biogeogr 9:125–144CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Isenhart TM, Schultz RC, Colletti JP, Rodrigues CA (1996) Constructed wetlands as components of riparian management systems in areas of agricultural tile drainage. In: Ehrenreich DL, Ehrenreich DL, Lee HW (eds) Growing a sustainable Future. Proceedings of fourth North American agroforestry conference, 23–28 July 1995. University of Idaho, Boise, p 130Google Scholar
  29. Jacke D, Toensmeier E (2005) Edible forest gardens (volume 1 and 2). Chelesa Green Publishing Company, White River Junction, p 617Google Scholar
  30. Joffre R (1988) The Dehesa: an agrosilvopastoral system of the Mediterranean region with special reference to the Sierra Morena area of Spain. Agrofor Syst 6(1):71–96CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Joshi MR (2011) Class note of agroforestry. Kathmandu Forestry College, Koteshwork. http://www.singhranendra.com.np
  32. Kort J, Turnock R (1999) Carbon reservoir and biomass in Canadian prairie shelterbelts. Agrofor Syst 44(2):175–186Google Scholar
  33. Lal R (2005) Forest soils and carbon sequestration. Forest Ecology and Management 220(1-3):242–258CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Lelle MA, Gold MA (1994) Agroforestry systems for temperate climates: lessons from Rome Italy. Forest Conserv History 38(3):118–126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Lewis CE, Burton GW, Monson WG, McCormick WC (1983) Integration of pines, pastures and cattle in South Georgia, USA. Agrofor Syst 1(1):277–297CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Lowrance RR, Gordon AM, Gillespie TJ (1992) Erosion and deposition in a field/forest system estimated using cesium-137 activity. J Soil Water Conserv 43:195–199Google Scholar
  37. Lowther WL, Barry TN (1985) Nutritional value of lotus grown on low fertility soils. Proc N Z Soc Anim Prod 45:125–127Google Scholar
  38. Manning AD, Fischer J, Lindenmayer DB (2006) Scattered trees are keystone structures-implications for conservation. Biol Conserv 132(3):311–321CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Marquez CO, Cambardella CA, Isenhart TM, Schultz RC (1999) Assessing soil quality in riparian buffer by testing organic matter fractions in central Iowa, USA. Agrofor Syst 44(2):133–140Google Scholar
  40. McElwee H, Knowles RL (2000) Estimating canopy closure and understorey pasture production in New Zealand grown poplar plantations. N Z J For Sci 30(3):422–435Google Scholar
  41. Moore RW, Bird PR (1997) Agroforestry systems in temperate Australia. CAB International Press, Wallingford, pp 119–146Google Scholar
  42. Moreno G, Obrador JJ (2007) Effects of trees and understorey management on soil fertility and nutritional status of holm oaks in Spanish dehesas. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems 78(3):253–264CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Moulis I, Guillerm JL (1994) Interactions between vine plant, cover crop and weeds in the grass cover technique for vineyards in a Mediterranean region. In: Proceedings of the 5th EWRS Mediterranean symposium Perugia, Italy, 6–8 June, 1994. Weed control in sustainable agriculture in the Mediterranean area, pp 311–318Google Scholar
  44. Mughal AH, Khan MA (2007) An overview of agroforestry in Kashmir valley. In: Puri S, Panwar P (eds) Agroforestry systems and practices. New India Publishing Agency, New Delhi, pp 43–54Google Scholar
  45. Mughal AH, Makaya AS (2000) Suitable Agroforestry models for degraded and wastelands of Srinagar District Kashmir. In: Khan MA (ed) Environment biodiversity conservation. APH Publishing Corporation, New Dehi, pp 493–500Google Scholar
  46. Nabhan GP (1982a) Gathering the Desert. University of Arizona Press, Tucson, p 209Google Scholar
  47. Nabhan GP (1982b) The Desert smells like rain. North Point Press, Albany, p 148Google Scholar
  48. Nabhan GP (1985) Gathering the desert. University of Arizona Press, Tucson, p 209Google Scholar
  49. Nair PKR (1993) An introduction to agroforestry. Kluwer Academic Publishers, London, pp 443–465CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Neider R, Benbi DK, Isermann K (2003) Soil organic matter dynamics. In: Benbi DK, Neider R (eds) Handbook of processes and modelling in soilplant analysis. Haworth Press, Binghamton, pp 346–408Google Scholar
  51. Nii-Annang S, Grunewald H, Freese D, Huttl R, Dilly O (2009) Microbial activity, organic C accumulation and 13C abundance in soils under aley cropping systems after 9 years of recultivation of quaternary deposits. Biol Fertil Soils 45(5):531–538CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Ntayombya P, Gordon AM (1995) Effects of black locust on productivity and nitrogen nutrition of intercropped barley. Agrofor Syst 29(3):239–254CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Parfitt RL, Percival HJ, Dahlgren RA, Hill LF (1997) Soil and solution chemistry under pasture and radiata pine in New Zealand. Plant Soil 191(2):279–290CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Pearson HA (1975) Exotic grass yields under southern pines. USDA Forest Service Research note SO-201. Southern Forest Experimentation Station, New Orleans, p 3Google Scholar
  55. Peichl M, Thevathasan NV, Gordon AM, Huss J, Abohassan RA (2006) Carbon sequestration potentials in temperate tree based intercropping systems south Ontario, Canada. Agrofor Syst 66(3):243–257CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Percival NS, Hawke MF (1985) Agroforestry development and research in New Zealand. N Z Agric Sci 19:86–92Google Scholar
  57. Quinkenstein A, Böhm C, da Silva ME, Freese D, Hüttl RF (2011) Assessing carbon sequestration in short rotation coppices of Robinia pseudoacacia L. on marginal sites in northeast Germany. In: Kumar BM, PKR N (eds) Carbon sequestration potential of agroforestry systems-opportunities and challenges. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 201–216CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Radcliffe JE (1985) Shelterbelt increases dryland pasture growth in Canterbury. Proc New Zealand Grassland Assoc 46:51–56Google Scholar
  59. Reid R, Wilson G (1985) Agroforestry in Australia and New Zealand. Goddard and Dobson, Box Hill, p 255Google Scholar
  60. Rhoades CC, Nissen TM, Kettler JS (1998) Soil nitrogen dynamics in alley cropping and no-till systems on ultisols of Georgia Piedmont, USA. Agrofor Syst 39(1):31–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Richardson SD (1966) Forestry in communist China. John Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, p 332Google Scholar
  62. Rodrigues CA (1996) Reduction of nitrate and atrazine concentrations by a muti-species buffer strip. In: Ehrenreich JH, Lee HW (eds) Growing a sustainable future. Proceedings of the fourth North American agroforestry conference 23–28 July 1995 University of Idaho, BoiseGoogle Scholar
  63. Schoeneberger MM (2009) Agroforestry: working trees for sequestering carbon on agricultural lands. Agrofor Syst 75(1):27–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Schultz RC, Colletti JP, Isenhart TM, Rodrigues CA, Faltonson RR, Simpkins WW, Thompson ML (1996) Design options for riparian zone management. In: Ehrenreich JH, Ehrenreich DL, Lee HW (eds) Growing a sustainable future. Proceedings of the fourth North American agroforestry conference, 23–28 July 1995. University of Idaho, BoiseGoogle Scholar
  65. Secretariat of Convention on Biological Diversity (SCBD) (2003) Interlinkages between biological diversity and climate change Advice on integration of biological considerations into the implementation of the United Nations framework convention on climate change and its Kyoto protocol, CBD Technical Series No. 10, Montreal SCBD, pp 61–62Google Scholar
  66. Sharrow SH (1994) Sheep as a silvicultural management tool in temperate conifer forests. Sheep Res J (Spec Issue): 97–104Google Scholar
  67. Sharrow SH, Ismail S (2004) Carbon and nitrogen storage in agroforests, tree plantations, and pastures in western Oregon, USA. Agroforestry Systems 60(2):123–130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Smith WR (1982) Energy from forest biomass. Academic, London, p 275Google Scholar
  69. Sun H, Tang Y, Xie J (2008) Contour hedgerow intercropping in the mountains of China: a review. Agrofor Syst 73(1):65–76CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Thakur PS, Thakur CL (2002) Agroforestry systems for resources conservation and livelihood security in lower Himalayas (Panwar P, Tiwari AK, Dadhwal KS (eds)). New India Publishing Agency, New Delhi, pp 47–66Google Scholar
  71. Theng BKG, Tate KR, Sollins P, Moris N, Madkarni N, Tate R (1989) Constituents of organic matter in temperate and tropical soils. In: Coleman DC, Oades JM, Uehara G (eds) Dynamics of soil organic matter in tropical ecosystems. College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources, University of Hawaii, Honululu, pp 5–32Google Scholar
  72. Thevathasan NV, Gordon AM, Simpson JA, Reynolds PE, Price GW, Zhang P (2004) Biophysical and ecological interactions in a temperate tree-based intercropping system. J Crop Improv 12(1–2):339–363CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Timberman C (1975) Controlled grazing of brush fields. Internal report, Umpqua National Forest Tiller Ranger District, Oregon, p 2Google Scholar
  74. Tufekcioglu A, Raich JW, Isenhart TM, Schultz RC (1999) Fine root dynamics, coarse root biomass, root distribution and soils respiration in a multispecies riparian buffer in central Iowa, USA. Agrofor Syst 44(2):163–174Google Scholar
  75. Verma KS, Bhardwaj DR (2007) Agroforestry systems in Himachal Pradesh. In: Puri S, Panwar P (eds) Agroforestry systems and practices. New India Publishing Agency, New Delhi, pp 67–93Google Scholar
  76. Wang XC (1991) The development and utilisation of tree crops in Changbai mountain area. In: Shi KS (ed) Development of forestry science and technology in China. China Science and Technology Press, BeijingGoogle Scholar
  77. Welsh R (1993) Practical, profitable and sustainable: innovative management strategies on four NYS dairy farms. Community Agriculture Development Series, Farming Alternatives Program, Cornell University, IthacaGoogle Scholar
  78. Williams PA, Koblents H, Gordon AM (1996) Bird use of two intercropped plantations in southern Ontario. In: Ehrenreich DL, Lee HW (eds) Growing a sustainable future: Proceedings of the fourth North American agroforestry conference, 23–28 July 1995, University of Idaho, Boise, pp 158–162Google Scholar
  79. Wood GM (1987) Animals for biological brush control. Agron J 79(2):319–321CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Wu YY, Dalmaico RV (1991) Energy balance, water use and wheat yield in a Paulownia-wheat intercropped field. In: Zhu ZH, Cai MT, Wang SJ, Jiang YX (eds) Agroforestry systems in China. IDRC, Canada and CAF ChinaGoogle Scholar
  81. Wu Y, Zhu ZH (1997) Temperate agroforestry in China. CAB International-Press, Wallingford, pp 149–177Google Scholar
  82. Zhu ZH (1991) Evaluation and model optimisation of paulownia intercropping system- a project summary report. In: Zhu ZH, Cai MT, Wang SJ, Jiang YX (eds) Agroforestry systems in China. IDRC, Canada and CAF China, pp 30–43Google Scholar
  83. Zhu ZH, Xiong YG, Lu XY (1986) Paulownia cultivation and utilization in China. Asian Network for Biological Sciences and IDRC, Canada, p 65Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • D. R. Bhardwaj
    • 1
  • Mansi R. Navale
    • 1
  • Sandeep Sharma
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Silviculture and AgroforestryDr. Y.S. Parmar University of Horticulture and ForestryNauni, SolanIndia
  2. 2.Himalayan Forest Research InstitutePanthaghati, ShimlaIndia

Personalised recommendations