Agroforestry pp 369-411 | Cite as

Agroforestry for Increasing Farm Productivity in Water-stressed Ecologies

  • M. L. Soni
  • V. Subbulakshmi
  • K. R. Sheetal
  • N. D. Yadava
  • Jagdish C. Dagar


Water-scarcity is increasing in many countries, and more regions are moving into increasing water-stressed conditions. According to an estimate, about 4500 km3 year−1 more water will be needed to feed the world population in 2050 at current crop water productivity levels. There is little scope to increase food production by increasing the area under cultivation. Hence, there is a need to devise such production systems that can produce food from marginal agricultural land and is also capable of maintaining and improving quality of soil and environment. This can be achieved through agroforestry. In India, the current area under agroforestry is estimated as 25.32 million hectares (m ha). There is further scope of increasing the area under agroforestry by another 28.0 m ha in the future. Thus, a total of 53.32 m ha area of the country could potentially be brought under agroforestry in the near future, which will make agroforestry a major land use activity, after agriculture (140.86 m ha) and forestry (69.63 m ha). There is substantial experimental evidence to support the hypothesis that agroforestry may increase productivity by making better use of available resources. Significant complementarities of water use may occur naturally if trees with suitable leafing phenology or rooting architecture are used in agroforestry systems. To achieve this, the trees and crops must capture a greater proportion of the available resources and use them more efficiently to produce dry matter than equivalent sole stands. A number of technologies with suitable tree and crop combinations have been identified for different agroecological zones of the country. These technologies provide options for improving livelihood, environmental and energy security. This paper describes the promising agroforestry systems to achieve higher productivity in water-stressed ecologies.


Agroforestry Water productivity Water-stressed areas Resource capture Microclimate 


  1. Amundson RG, Ali AR, Belsky AJ (1995) Stomatal responsiveness to changing light intensity increases rain use efficiency of below-crown vegetation in tropical savannas. J Arid Environ 29:139–153CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Anderson LS, Sinclair FL (1993) Ecological interactions in agroforestry systems. Agrofor Abstr 6:57–91Google Scholar
  3. Arya R (2006) Studies on growth and biomass production of different fodder tree species in a silvi-pastoral trial under hot arid conditions in India. J Arid Environ 65(1):179–191CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Ayers RS, Westcot DW (1985) Water quality for agriculture. FAO irrigation and drainage paper no. 29. Re. 1, Rome, p 173Google Scholar
  5. Banerjee H, Dhara PK (2011) Evaluation of different agri-horti-silvicultural models for rainfed uplands in West Bengal. Progress Agric 11(1):143–148Google Scholar
  6. Bayala J, Sanou J, Teklehaimanot Z, Ouedraogo S, Kalinganire A, Coe R, van Noordwijk M (2015) Advances in knowledge of processes in soil–tree–crop interactions in parkland systems in the West African Sahel: a review. Agric Ecosyst Environ 205:25–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Belsky AJ (1994) Influences of trees on savannah productivity: test of shade, nutrients, and tree-grass competition. Ecology 75:922–932CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Belsky AJ, Mwonga SM, Duxbury JM (1993) Effects of widely spaced trees and livestock grazing on understory environments in tropical savannas. Agrofor Syst 24:1–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bengtson P, Falkengren-Grerup U, Bengtsson G (2006) Spatial distributions of plants and gross N transformation rates in a forest soil. J Ecol 94(4):754–764CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Beniwal RK, Soni ML, Yadava ND (2008) Soil moisture extraction pattern of arid zone trees under agri-horti-silvi system in north western Rajasthan. In: Prasad SN, Singh RK, Ashok Kumar, Pandiyal AK, Shakir-Ali, Somsundaran, Sethy VK, Sharda VN (eds) Natural resource management for sustainable development in Western India. Allied Publishers, New Delhi, pp 197–198Google Scholar
  11. Bhati TK, Tiwari JC, Rathore SS (2008) Productivity dynamics of integrated farming systems in western Rajasthan. In: Narain P, Singh MP, Kar A, Kathju S, Kumar P (eds) Diversification of arid farming systems. Arid Zone Research Association of India & Scientific Publishers (India), Jodhpur, pp 23–30Google Scholar
  12. Boffa JM (1999) Agroforestry parklands in sub-Saharan Africa. Food and Agriculture Organisation, RomeGoogle Scholar
  13. Bouwer H (2002) Integrated water management for the 21st century: problems and solutions. J Irrig Drain Eng 28:193–202CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Brenner AJ (1996) Microclimate modifications in agroforestry. In: Ong CK, Huxley PA (eds) Tree–crop interactions. A physiological approach. CAB International, Wallingford, pp 156–186Google Scholar
  15. Broadhead JS, Black CR, Ong CK (2003a) Tree leafing phenology and crop growth in semi-arid agroforestry systems. Agrofor Syst 58:137–148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Broadhead JS, Ong CK, Black CR (2003b) Tree phenology and soil water in semi-arid agroforestry systems. For Ecol Manag 180:61–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Butterworth JA (1997) The Hydrology of a dryland catchment in southern Zimbabwe and the effects of climatic and land use change on shallow ground water resources. PhD thesis, University of Reading, ReadingGoogle Scholar
  18. Cameron DM, Rance SJ (1990) Planting density effects on water use efficiency of trees and pasture in an agroforestry experiment. N Z J For Sci 20(1):39–53Google Scholar
  19. Cannell MGR, van Noordwijk M, Ong CK (1996) The central agroforestry hypothesis: the trees must acquire resources that the crop would not otherwise acquire. Agrofor Syst 34:27–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Charbonnier F, le Maire G, Dreyer E, Casanoves F, Christina M, Dauzat J, Eitel JU, Vaast P, Vierling LA, Roupsard O (2013) Competition for light in heterogeneous canopies: application of MAESTRA to a coffee (Coffea arabica L.) agroforestry system. Agric For Meteorol 181:152–169CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Chauhan SK, Dhillon WS, Singh N, Sharma R (2013) Physiological behaviour and yield evaluation of agronomic crops under agri-horti-silviculture system. Int J Plant Res 3(1):1–8. Google Scholar
  22. Chundawat BS, Gautam SK (2010) Text book of agroforestry. IBH & Publishing, New Delhi, p 188Google Scholar
  23. Coleman DC, Edwards AL, Belsky AJ, Mwonga S (1991) The distribution and abundance of soil nematodes in East African savannas. Biol Fertil Soils 12:67–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Cooper PJM, Keatinge IDH, Hughes G (1983) Crop evapotranspiration – a technique for calculation of its components by field measurements. Field Crops Res 7:299–312CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Dagar JC, Minhas PS (2016a) Saline irrigation for productive agroforestry systems. In: Dagar JC, Minhas PS (eds) Agroforestry for the management of waterlogged saline soils and poor-quality waters. Advances in agroforestry, vol 13, Springer, New Delhi, pp 145–162.
  26. Dagar JC, Minhas PS (eds) (2016b) Agroforestry for the management of waterlogged saline soils and poor-quality waters. Advances in agroforestry, vol 13, Springer, New Delhi.
  27. Dagar JC, Tomar OS, Minhas PS, Singh G, Jeet Ram (2008) Dry land biosaline agriculture – Hisar experience. Technical bulletin no. 6. CSSRI, Karnal, p 28Google Scholar
  28. Dagar JC, Yadav RK, Sharif A (2012) Euphorbia antisyphilitica: a potential petro-crop for degraded calcareous soils and saline water irrigation in dry regions of India. J Soil Salinity Water Qual 4(2):86–91Google Scholar
  29. Dagar JC, Tomar OS, Minhas PS, Kumar M (2013) Lemon grass (Cymbopogon flexuosus) productivity as affected by salinity of irrigation water, planting method and fertilizer doses on degraded calcareous soil in a semi-arid region of north west India. Indian J Agric Sci 83(7):734–738Google Scholar
  30. Dagar JC, Yadav RK, Tomar OS, Minhas PS, Yadav G, Lal K (2016) Fruit-based agroforestry systems for saline water-irrigated semi-arid hyperthermic camborthids soils of north-west India. Agrofor Syst 90(6):1123–1132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Dancette C, Poulain JF (1969) Influence of Acacia albida on pedo-climatic factors and crop yields. Afr Soils Sols Afr 14:143–184Google Scholar
  32. Danso SKA, Bowen GD, Sanginga N (1992) Biological nitrogen fixation in trees in agroecosystems. Plant Soil 141(1–2):177–196CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Dhyani SK, Handa AK, Uma (2013) Area under agroforestry in India: an assessment for present status and future perspective. Indian J Agrofor 15(1):1–11. Google Scholar
  34. Droppelmann KJ, Lehmann J, Ephrath J, Berliner PR (2000) Water use efficiency and uptake patterns in a run off agroforestry system in an arid environment. Agrofor Syst 49:223–243CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Duarte EMG, Cardoso IM, Stijnen T, Mendonça MAFC, Coelho MS, Cantarutti RB, Kuyper TW, Villani EMA, Mendonça ES (2013) Decomposition and nutrient release in leaves of Atlantic rainforest tree species used in agroforestry systems. Agrofor Syst 87(4):835–847CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Eamus D, Prichard H (1998) A cost-benefit analysis of leaves of four Australian savannah species. Tree Physiol 18:537–545PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Eastham J, Rose CW, Charles Edwards DA, Cameron DM, Rance SJ (1990) Planting density effects on water use efficiency of trees and pasture in an agroforestry experiment. N Z J For Sci 20:39–53Google Scholar
  38. Elfad MA (1997) Management of Prosopis juliflora for use in agroforestry systems in the Sudan. PhD thesis,,Tropical Silviculture Unit, University of Helsinki. Tropical Forestry Report 16, 107 ppGoogle Scholar
  39. Facelli JM, Brock DJ (2000) Patch dynamics in arid lands: localized effects of Acacia papyrocarpa on soils and vegetation of open woodlands of South Australia. Ecography 23:479–491CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Falkenmark M, Karlberg L, Rockström J (2009) Present and future water requirements for feeding humanity. Food Sec 1:59–69CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. FAO (2013) Advancing agroforestry on the policy agenda: a guide for decision-makers. Compiled by Buttoud G in collaboration with Ajayi O, Detlefsen G, Place F, Torquebiau E. Agroforestry Working paper no. 1. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), Rome, p 37Google Scholar
  42. GoI (1998) India-a reference manual. Ministry of Information & Broadcasting, Government of India, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  43. Goodall WD, Perry RA (1981) Arid land ecosystems. Cambridge University Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
  44. Gregory PJ (1996) Approaches to modelling the uptake of water and nutrients in agroforestry systems. Agrofor Syst 34:51–65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Guo W, Bo L, Zhang X, Wang R (2010) Effects of water stress on water use efficiency and water balance components of Hippophae rhamnoides and Caragana intermedia in the soil–plant–atmosphere continuum. Agrofor Syst 80:423–435CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Gupta T (1982) The economics of tree crop on marginal agricultural lands with special reference to the hot arid region in Rajasthan, India. Int Tree Crop J 2:155–195CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Gupta GN, Singh G, Kawacha GR (1998) Performance of Prosopis Cineraria and associated crops under varying spacing regimes in the arid zone of India. Agrofor Syst 40:149–157CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Hao X, Chen Y, Li W, Guo B, Zhao R (2010) Hydraulic lift in Populus euphratica Oliv. From the desert riparian vegetation of the Tarim Basin. J Arid Environ 74:905–911CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Hocking D (1998) Trees in wetland rice fields: a successful tree management technology developed through participatory action–research in Bangladesh. Agrofor Today 10:4–6Google Scholar
  50. Hocking D, Islam K (1998) Trees on farms in Bangladesh. Growth of top and root-pruned trees in wetland rice fields and yield of understorey crops. Agrofor Syst 39:101–115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Huth NI, Robertson MJ, Poulton PL (2010) Regional differences in tree-crop competition due to soil, climate and management. Crop Pasture Sci 61(9):763–770CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. ICRAF (1997) International Centre for Research in agroforestry. Annual Report. ICRAF, Nairobi, Kenya, p 249Google Scholar
  53. Jackson NA (1998) Water balance of agroforestry systems on hill slopes. Institute of Hydrology/Department for International Development report no. 98/3. Institute of Hydrology, WallingfordGoogle Scholar
  54. Jackson NA, Wallace JS (1999) Soil evaporation measurements in an agroforestry system in Kenya. Agric For Meteorol 94:203–215CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Joffre R, Rambal S (1988) Soil water improvement by trees in the rangelands of southern Spain. Acta Oecol 9:405–422Google Scholar
  56. Jose S, Gillespie AR, Pallardy SG (2004) Interspecific interactions in temperate agroforestry. Agrofor Syst 61:237–255Google Scholar
  57. Kater LJM, Kante S, Bundelman A (1992) Karite (Vitellaria paradoxa) and nere (Parkia biglobosa) associated with crops in South Mali. Agrofor Syst 18:89–105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Kaushik RA, Kaushik N, Kumar S (2006) Effect of micro-sprinkler irrigation on growth, yield and water use efficiency of different agri-silvi-horti systems. Indian J Agrofor 8(1):1–7Google Scholar
  59. Kiepe P (1995) No runoff, no soil loss: soil and water conservation in Hedgerow Barrier Systems. PhD thesis, Wageningen Agricultural University, WageningenGoogle Scholar
  60. Kohli A, Saini BC (2003) Microclimate modification and response of wheat planted under trees in a fan design in northern India. Agrofor Syst 58:109–118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Koriba K (1958) On the periodicity of tree growth in the tropics gardeners’. Bull Singapore 17:11–81Google Scholar
  62. Leakey R (1996) Definition of agroforestry revisited. Agrofor Today 8(1):5–7Google Scholar
  63. Livesley SJ, Gregory PJ, Buresh RJ (2004) Competition in tree row agroforestry systems. Soil water distribution and dynamics. Plant Soil 246:129–139CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Lott JE, Howard SB, Ong CK, Black CR (2000a) Long-term productivity of a Grevillea robusta-based overstorey agroforestry system in semi-arid Kenya I. Tree Growth. For Ecol Manag 139:175–186CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Lott JE, Howard SB, Ong CK, Black CR (2000b) Long-term productivity of a Grevillea robusta-based overstorey agroforestry system in semi-arid Kenya. II Crop growth and system performance. For Ecol Manage 139:187–201CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Lott JE, Khan AAH, Black CR, Ong CK (2002) Water use in a Grevillea robusta- maize overstorey agroforestry system in semi-arid Kenya. For Ecol Manag 85:1–15Google Scholar
  67. Ludlow MM, Muchow RC (1990) A critical evaluation of traits for improving crop yields in water-limited environments. Adv Agron 43:107–153CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Ludwig F, Dawson TE, Kroon H, Brendse F, Prins HHT (2003) Hydraulic lift in Acacia tortilis trees on an east African savannah. Oecologia 134:293–300PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Ludwig F, Dawson TE, Prins HHT, Berendse F, de Kroon H (2004) Below ground competition between trees and grasses may overwhelm the facilitative effects of hydraulic lift. Ecol Lett 7:623–631CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Luo T, Young R, Reig P (2015) Aqueduct projected water stress country rankings. Technical note. World Resources Institute, Washington, DC.
  71. Marshall FM (1995) Resource partitioning and productivity in Perennial Pigeonpea/Groundnut Agroforestry Systems in India. PhD thesis. University of Nottingham, London, 324 ppGoogle Scholar
  72. Mathukia RK, Sagarka BK, Panara DM (2016) Fodder production through agroforestry: a boon for profitable dairy farming. Innov J Agri Sci 4(2):13–19Google Scholar
  73. McCall WW, Gitlin HM (1973) Constructed windbreaks for Hawaii. Circular 473. Honolulu, Hawaii, Cooperative Extension Service, University of Hawaii, 16 ppGoogle Scholar
  74. McMichael BI, Lascano RJ (2010) Evaluation of hydraulic lift in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) germplasm. Environ Exp Bot 68:26–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Mills AJ, Milewski AV, Sirami C, Rogers KH, Witkowski ETF, Stalmans M, Fey MV (2012) Aerosol capture by small trees in savannas marginal to treeless grassland in South Africa. Geoderma 189–190:124–132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Minhas PS (1996) Saline water management for irrigation in India. Agric Water Manag 30:1–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Monteith JL (1975) Vegetation and the atmosphere. Academic Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
  78. Monteith JL, Ong CK, Corlett JE (1991) Microclimatic interactions in agroforestry systems. For Ecol Manag 45:31–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Moody A, Jones JA (2000) Soil response to canopy position and feral pig disturbance beneath Quercus Agrifolia on Santa Cruz Island, California. Appl Soil Ecol 14(3):269–281. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Munn RE (1991) Ecosystem experiments. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  81. Munoz MR, Squeo FA, Leon MF, Tracol Y, Gutierrez JR (2008) Hydraulic lift in three shrub species from the Chilean coastal desert. J Arid Environ 72:624–632CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Muthuri C, Bayala J, Iiyama M, Ong C (2014) Trees and micro-climate. In: De Leeuw J, Njenga M, Wagner B, Iiyama M (eds) Tree resilience: an assessment of the resilience provided by trees in the drylands of Eastern Africa. World Agroforestry Centre, Nairobi, pp 81–85Google Scholar
  83. Narain P, Singh RK, Sindhwal NS, Joshie P (1998) Water balance and water use efficiency of different land uses in western Himalayan valley region. Agric Water Manag 37(3):225–240CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Oliveira RS, Dawson TE, Burgess SSO, Nepstad DC (2005) Hydraulic redistribution in three Amazonian trees. Oecologia 145:354–363PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Ong CK, Black CR (1994) Complementarity in resource capture in intercropping and agroforestry systems. In: Monteith JL, Scott RK, Unsworth MK (eds) Resource capture by crops. University of Nottingham Press, London, pp 255–278Google Scholar
  86. Ong CK, Leakey RRB (1999) Why tree-crop interactions in agroforestry appear at odds with tree-grass interactions in tropical savannahs. Agrofor Syst 45:109–129CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Ong CK, Odongo CW, Marshall FM, Black CR (1992) Water use of agroforestry systems in semi-arid India. In: Calder IR, Hall RL, Adlard PG (eds) Growth and water use of forest plantations. Wiley, Chichester, pp 347–358Google Scholar
  88. Ong CK, Black CR, Marshall FM, Corlett JE (1996) Principles of resources capture and utilisation of light and water. In: Ong CK, Huxley PA (eds) Tree–crop interactions – a physiological approach. CAB International, Wallingford, pp 73–158Google Scholar
  89. Ong CK, Black CR, Wallace JS, Khan AAH, Lott JE, Jackson NA (2000) Productivity, microclimate and water use in Grevillea robusta-based agroforestry systems on hill slopes in Kenya. Agric Ecosyst Environ 80:121–141CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Ong CK, Wilson J, Deans JD, Mulatya J, Raussen T, Wajja-Musukwe N (2002) Tree–crop interactions: manipulation of water use and root function. Agric Water Manag 3:171–186CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Ong CK, Black CR, Muthuri CW (2006) Modifying forestry and agroforestry to increase water productivity in the semi-arid tropics. CAB Rev Perspect Agric Vet Sci Nutr Nat Resour 65:1–19Google Scholar
  92. Ong CK, Wilson J, Black CR, Van Noordwijk M (2015) Synthesis: key agroforestry challenges in the future. In: Black C, Wilson J, Ong CK (eds) Tree–crop interactions: agroforestry in a changing climate. CABI, Wallingford, pp 326–334CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Palm CA (1995) Contribution of agroforestry trees to nutrient requirements of intercropped plants. Agrofor Syst 30:105–124CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Prider J (2002) Resource dynamics and positive and negative interactions between plants in arid systems. PhD thesis, University of Adelaide, AdelaideGoogle Scholar
  95. Pugnaire FI, Haase P, Puigdefábregas J, Cueto M, Clark SC, Incoll LD (1996) Facilitation and succession under the canopy of a leguminous shrub, Retama sphaerocarpa, in a semi-arid environment in south-east Spain. Oikos 76:455–464CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Qadar M, Oster JD, Schubert S, Noble AD, Saharawa KL (2007) Phytoremediation of sodic and saline-sodic soils. Adv Agron 96:197–247CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Qadar M, Tubeileh A, Akhtar J, Labri A, Minhas PS, Khan MA (2008) Productivity enhancement of salt-affected environments through crop diversification. Land Degrad Dev 19:429–453CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Reed S (2007) Environment and security. Climate Institute.
  99. Reich PB (1995) Phenology of tropical forests: patterns, causes, and consequences. Can J Bot 73:164–174CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Reich PB, Borchert R (1984) Water stress and tree phenology in a tropical dry forest in the lowlands of Costa Rica. J Ecol 72:61–74CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Richards JH, Caldwell MM (1987) Hydraulic lift: substantial nocturnal water transport between layers by Artemisia tridentate roots. Oecologia 73:486–489PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Rockstrom J (1997) On-farm agrohydrological analysis of the Sahelian yield crisis: rainfall partitioning, soil nutrients and water use efficiency of Pearl Millet. Stockholm University, Stockholm, p 62Google Scholar
  103. Rockstrom J, Falkenmark M, Karlberg L, Hoff H, Rost S, Gerten D (2009) Future water availability for global food production: the potential of green water for increasing resilience to global change. Water Resour Res 45:W00A12. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Rosenberg NJ (1974) Windbreaks and shelter effect. In: Rosenberg NJ (ed) Miroclimate: the biological environment. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  105. Rowe EC, Hairiah K, Giller KE, Van Noordwijk M, Cadisch G (1998) Testing the safety-net role of hedgerow tree roots by 15 N placement at different soil depths. Agrofor Syst 43(1–3):81–93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Roy MM, Tewari JC, Ram M (2011) Agroforestry for climate change adaptations and livelihood improvement in Indian hot arid regions. Int J Agric Crop Sci 3(2):43–54Google Scholar
  107. Rumley R, Ong C (2012) The right tree for a dry place. Synthesis 1. World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF), NairobiGoogle Scholar
  108. Sanchez PA (1995) Science in agroforestry. In: Sinclair FL (ed) Agroforestry: science, policy and practice. Kluwer, DordrechtGoogle Scholar
  109. SFR (2013) State of forest report, forest survey of India, ministry of environment, forest & climate change, Kaulagarh Road, Dehradun, pp 252Google Scholar
  110. Shankarnarayan KA (1984) Agro-forestry in arid and semi-arid zone. Central Arid Zone Research Institute, JodhpurGoogle Scholar
  111. Shankarnarayan KA, Harsh LN, Kathju S (1987) Agroforestry in the arid zones of India. Agrofor Syst 5:69–88CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Shanker A, Newaj R, Rai P, Solanki KR, Kareemulla K, Tiwari K, Ajit R (2005) Micro-climate modifications, growth and yield of intercrops under Hardwickia binata Roxb. Based agroforestry system. Arch Agron Soil Sci 51:281–291CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Sharma AK, Gupta JP (1996) Agroforestry systems for the hot arid regions of India. In: Proceedings of IUFRO-DNAES conference on Resource Inventory Techniques to support agroforestry and environment activities (October 1–3), Chandigarh, pp 259–262Google Scholar
  114. Sharma AK, Gupta JP (1997) Shelterbelt management for environmental improvement in hot arid ecosystem. In: Gupta JP, Sharma BM (eds) Agroforestry for sustained productivity in arid regions. Scientific Publisher, Jodhpur, pp 55–60Google Scholar
  115. Shen Y, Zhang Y, Li S (2011) Nutrient effects on diurnal variation and magnitude of hydraulic lift in winter wheat. Agric Water Manag 98:1589–1594CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Shiklamanov IA (1990) Global water resources. Nat Resour 26(3):34–43Google Scholar
  117. Sinclair TR (2000) Model analysis of plant traits leading to prolonged crop survival during severe drought. Field Crops Res 68:211–217CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Singh G, Rathod TR (2007) Growth, production and resource use in Colophospermum mopane-based agroforestry system in north-western India. Arch Agron Soil Sci 53(1):75–88CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Singh K, Chauhan HS, Rajput DK, Singh DV (1989) Report of a 60 month study on litter production, changes in soil chemical properties and productivity under poplar (P. deltoides) and Eucalyptus (E. hybrid) inter planted with aromatic grasses. Agrofor Syst 9:37–45. 56CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Sinha KR (1993) Taming the Thar desert of Rajasthan (India). Desertification Control Bulletin, vol 22. UNEP Publication, Nairobi, pp 31–35Google Scholar
  121. Smith J (2010) Agroforestry: reconciling productivity with protection of the environment. A synopsis of research literature. Organic Research Centre, Elm FarmGoogle Scholar
  122. Smith DM, Jarvis PG, Odongo JCW (1997) Sources of water used by trees and millet in Sahelian windbreak systems. J Hydrol 198:140–153CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Soni ML, Beniwal RK, Yadava ND, Talwar HS (2008) Spatial distribution of soil organic carbon under agro forestry and traditional cropping system in hyper arid zone of Rajasthan. Ann Arid Zone:103–106Google Scholar
  124. Soni ML, Yadava ND, Bhardwaj S (2013a) Decomposition and nitrogen release dynamics of fruit tree leaf litters in arid western Rajasthan. Ann Arid Zone 52(1):31–37Google Scholar
  125. Soni ML, Yadava ND, Beniwal RK, Singh JP, Kumar S, Birbal (2013b) Grass based strip cropping systems for controlling soil erosion and enhancing system productivity under drought situations of hot arid western Rajasthan. Int J Agric Stat Sci 9(2):685–692Google Scholar
  126. Steduto P, Hsaio TC, Fereres E (2007) On the conservative behaviour of biomass water productivity. Irrig Sci 25:189–207CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Stirling CM, Williams JH, Black CR, Ong CK (1990) The effect of timing of shade on developments dry matter production and light use efficiency in groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) underfield conditions. Aust J Agric Res 41:633–644CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Tanji KK (1990) Agricultural salinity assessment and management. American Society of Civil Engineers, RestonGoogle Scholar
  129. Teixera WG, Sinclair FL, Huwe B, Schroth G (2003) Soil water. In: Schroth G, Sinclair FL (eds) Trees, crops, and soil fertility: concepts and research methods. CABI, Wallingford, pp 209–234Google Scholar
  130. Thakur PS, Singh S (2008) Impact of tree management on growth and production behaviour of intercrops under rainfed agroforestry. Indian J For 31(1):37–46Google Scholar
  131. Tiedemann AR, Klemmedson JO (1973) Effect of mesquite on physical and chemical properties of the soil. J Range Manag 26:27–29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Tomar OS, Minhas PS, Sharma VK, Gupta RK (2003a) Response of nine forage grasses to saline irrigation and its schedules in a semi-arid climate of north-west India. J Arid Environ 55:533–544CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Tomar OS, Minhas PS, Sharma VK, Singh YP, Gupta RK (2003b) Performance of 31 tree species and soil conditions in a plantation established with saline irrigation. For Ecol Manag 177:333–346CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Tomar OS, Dagar JC, Minhas PS (2010) Evaluation of sowing methods, irrigation schedules, chemical fertilizer doses and varieties of Plantago ovata to rehabilitate degraded calcareous lands irrigated with saline water in dry regions of north-western India. Arid Land Res Manag 24:133–151CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Van Ginkel M, Sayer J, Sinclair F, Aw-Hassan A, Bossio D, Craufurd P, El Mourid M, Haddad N, Hoisington D, Johnson N (2013) An integrated agro-ecosystem and livelihood systems approach for the poor and vulnerable in dry areas. Food Sec 5(6):751–767CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Van Noordwijk M (1996) Root distribution of trees and crops: competition and/or complementarity. In: Ong CK, Huxley PA (eds) Tree-crop interactions: a physiological approach. CAB International, Wallingford, pp 319–364Google Scholar
  137. Van Noordwijk M, Cadisch G, Ong CK (2004) Below-ground interactions in tropical agroecosystems: concepts and models with multiple plant components. CABI International, Wallingford, p 440CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Van Noordwijk M, Lawson G, Hairiah K, Wilson JR (2015) Root distribution of trees and crops: competition and/or complementarity. In: Black C, Wilson J, Ong CK (eds) Tree–crop interactions: agroforestry in a changing climate. CABI, Wallingford, pp 221–257CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Vandenbelt R, Williams JH (1992) The effect of soil surface temperature on the growth of millet in relation to the effect of Faidherbia albida trees. Agric For Meteorol 60:93–100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Wallace JS (1991) The measurement and modelling of evaporation from semiarid land. In: Sivakumar MVK, Wallace JS, Renard C, Giroux C (eds) Soil water balance in the Sudano-Sahelian zone. Proceedings of the Niamey workshop, February 1991, IAHS Publication no. 199, Wallingford, pp 131–148Google Scholar
  141. Wallace JS (1996) The water balance of mixed tree-crop systems. In: Ong CK, Huxley PA (eds) Tree-crop interactions: a physiological approach. CAB International, Wallingford, pp 189–233Google Scholar
  142. Wallace JS, Jackson NA, Ong CK (1995) Water balance of agroforestry systems on hill slopes. Final report to the Forestry Research Programme, UK Overseas Development Administration, Institute of Hydrology, Wallingford, ODA 95/10, p 39Google Scholar
  143. Warren JM, Meinzer FC, Brooks JR, Domec JC (2005) Vertical stratification of soil water storage and release dynamics in Pacific northwest coniferous forests. Agric For Meteorol 130:39–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Zamora DS, Jose S, Nair PKR, Ramsey CL (2006) Interspecific interaction in a pecan–cotton alleycropping system in the southern United States: production physiology. Can J Bot 84:1686–1694Google Scholar
  145. Zemmrich A, Manthey M, Zerbe S, Oyunchimeg D (2010) Driving environmental factors and the role of grazing in grassland communities: a comparative study along an altitudinal gradient in Western Mongolia. J Arid Environ 74(10):1271–1280. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Zhang B, Zhao Y, Wang MZ (2008) Assessment of competition of water use between peanut (Arachis hypogaea) and Choerospondias axillaris in alley cropping systems in subtropical China. IAEA-TECDOC, pp 69–90Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. L. Soni
    • 1
  • V. Subbulakshmi
    • 1
  • K. R. Sheetal
    • 1
  • N. D. Yadava
    • 1
  • Jagdish C. Dagar
    • 2
  1. 1.ICAR-Central Arid Zone Research Institute, Regional Research StationBikanerIndia
  2. 2.Natural Resource Management DivisionKrishi Anusandhan Bhavan-II, Pusa, Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR)New DelhiIndia

Personalised recommendations