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The Food Metabolome and Novel Dietary Biomarkers Associated with Diseases

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Abstract

The food metabolome is an area of research that is of rising interest, particularly the association of chronic diseases to dietary biomarkers. This chapter will review and assess the current literature of the novel biomarkers used to track dietary intake of carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamin C, and carotenoids, as well as to explore the relationship between dietary patterns and biomarkers associated with disease processes. There is good evidence for the use of certain novel biomarkers for each of the aforementioned dietary components. A review of the literature also reveals a relationship between a “Western” dietary pattern, characterized by higher intakes of red meat, processed meat, French fries, eggs, high-fat dairy products, sweets, and refined grains and that of increased risk for systemic inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, cardiovascular disease, metabolic syndrome, hypertension, and diabetes. Contrasting this is the “prudent” dietary pattern characterized by increased fruit, vegetables, poultry, fish, whole grains, and legumes which had improved biomarker profiles of the aforementioned diseases. Similar to the “Western” pattern is a diet with high saturated fat/high simple carbohydrate that correlates with increased biomarkers of Alzheimer’s disease. There appears to be a large volume of literature investigating biomarkers of dietary intake and the relationship between dietary patterns and chronic diseases. However there is still need for literature looking into the relationship of novel biomarkers of fats, carbohydrates, protein, vitamin C, and carotenoids and the biomarkers of chronic diseases.

Keywords

  • Food Metabolome
  • Dietary Patterns
  • Biomarker Profiles
  • Carotenoids
  • Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment

These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Correspondence to Orhan E. Arslan .

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Arslan, O.E., Palmon, P. (2018). The Food Metabolome and Novel Dietary Biomarkers Associated with Diseases. In: Pathak, Y. (eds) Genomics-Driven Healthcare. Adis, Singapore. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-10-7506-3_6

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