Optical Properties of Photonic Crystal Fibers

  • Ashish Kumar Ghunawat
  • Anjali Jain
  • Kumari Nikita
  • Manish Tiwari
  • Ghanshyam Singh
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering book series (LNEE, volume 472)

Abstract

We present a brief study of the photonic crystal fibers and recent developments and modifications presented to them for betterment of the optical parameters. The properties birefringence, nonlinearity, confinement loss, and chromatic dispersion are discussed, and the fiber structures of the fiber designed from the past few years have been studied. The PCFs can be seen as the future of a number of optical applications owing to its low chromatic dispersion, low confinement loss, high birefringence, and nonlinearity, and, the best of all, its flexibility to modify its structural aspects to manipulate these properties as desired.

Keywords

Nonlinearity Birefringence Confinement loss Chromatic dispersion Optical parameters 

References

  1. 1.
    Chau Y-F, Liu C-Y, Yeh H-H (2010) A comparative study of high birefringence and low confinement loss photonic crystal fiber employing elliptical air holes. In: Fiber cladding with tetragonal lattice Progress In Electromagnetics Research B, vol 22, 39, 52Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Jonathan CK (2003) Photonic crystal fibres. Nature 424(14)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Philip St. JR (2006) Photonic-crystal fibers. J Light Technol 24(12)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Ju J, Jin W, Demokan MS (2003) Properties of a highly birefringent photonic crystal fiber. IEEE Photon Technol Lett, 15(10)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Buczynski R (2004) Photonic crystal fibers, Acta Physica Polonica A 106(2)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Russell et al (2003) Photonic crystal fibers, Philip Sci 299, 358Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    AliakbarEbnali H, Christoph P, MajidEbnali H, Christian K (2015) A proposal for loss engineering in slow-light photonic crystal waveguides. J Light Technol 33(9)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Masaaki H (2011) Future of transmission fiber Volume 3, Number 2, April 2011Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Sourabh R, Kajal M, Partha RC (2009) Effect of tapering realistic photonic crystal fiber in tailoring birefringence and dispersion properties. ICOP 2009-International Conference on Optics and PhotonicsGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Jianfei L, Junqiang S, Mingdi D, Yi Q (Feb. 15 2014) Highly nonlinear dispersion-flattened slotted spiral photonic crystal fibers. IEEE Photon Technol Lett 26(4)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Pranaw K, Madhusmita S, Sambuddha B Propagation characteristics of benzene filled photonic crystal fibers with high birefringence. In: International conference on electrical, electronics, and optimization techniques (ICEEOT)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Revathi S, Srinivasa R, Rizwan AS (2014) Highly nonlinear and birefringent spiral photonic crystal fiber, Advanc Opto Electron Hindawi Publishing Corporation, Article ID 464391Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Shuguang L, Yanfeng L, Yuanyuan Z, Guiyao Z, Ying H, Lantian H (2008) Correlation between the birefringence and the structural parameter in photonic crystal fiber. Opt Laser Technol 40, 663–667Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Gunasundari E, Senthilnathan K, Sivabalan S, Abdosllam MA Large dispersion and high nonlinearity in silicon nanowire embedded photonic crystal fiber, SR/S2/LOP-0014/201Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Peng S (2014) A polymer photonic crystal fiber with high and flattened birefringence Optik 125 1330–1332Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Roy S, kayser SF, Azmaeen T (2016) Design and optimization of a single mode octagonal photonic crystal fiber for high negative dispersion and high nonlinearity. In: 5th International Conference on Informatics, Electronics and Vision (ICIEV)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Xiaoqi L, Weimin S, Feiru W (2011) Design and optimization of ring cladding photonic crystal fiber with high nonlinearity and low zero dispersion wavelength. IEEE 978–1-4577-0796-4/11/$26.00 ©2011Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Huseyin A, Shyqyri H, FathiAbdel M (2010) Highly nonlinear bending-insensitive birefringent photonic crystal fibres. Sci Res Eng 608–616Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Daru C, Linfang S (Feb 15, 2007) Ultrahigh birefringent photonic crystal fiber with ultralow confinement loss. IEEE Photon Technol Lett 19(4)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Wenbin L, Ningliang L, Zhihua L, Peixiang L (Nov 1, 2012) Highly birefringent elliptical-hole microstructure fibers with low confinement loss. J Light Technol 30(21)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Yuan-Fong C (2014) Design of high birefringence photonic crystal fiber with three ring circular air holes in fiber cladding and two ring elliptical air holes in fiber core. Int J Comput Commun Instrument Eng (IJCCIE) 1(1) ISSN 2349–1469 EISSN 2349-1477Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Mishra SS, Vinod KS (2011) Highly birefringent photonic crystal fiber with low confinement loss at wavelength 1.55 µm, Optik 122 1975–1977Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Amir A, Revathi S, Srinivasa R, Abhijith C (2013) Modelling of circular photonic crystal fiber structure for high non-linearity. vol. 2(3) ISSN (Print): 2278–8948Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Lin A, Zheng Z, Zheng L, Yang L, Tao Z, Jiangtao C (2009) Ultra-wideband single-polarization single-mode photonic crystal fiber with high nonlinearity and low dispersion, OSA/ACPGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Ortigosa-Blanch A, Knight JC, Wadsworth WJ, Arriaga J, Mangan BJ, Birks TA, P. St. J. Russell (Sep 15, 2000) Highly birefringent photonic crystal fibers. Opt Lett 25(18)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Toulouse J (Nov 2005) Optical nonlinearities in fibers: review, recent examples, and systems applications. J Light Technol 23(11)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Jacob RF, Peter MW, Skovgaard, JesBroeng Numerical aperture of single-mode photonic crystal fibers. IEEE Photon Technol LettGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Jan S, Miloslav F, Vladimír T, Pavel R (June 2011) Principle of photonic crystal fibers. 2(2)Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Timothy JA, Ivan B, Koen C (2016) Nonlinear optics near the fundamental limit: Introduction. J Opt Soc Am B 33(12)Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Abdelaziz F, AbdelMalek HA, Haxha S, Gorman T, Bouchriha H (Oct 1, 2010) Senior Member, IEEE, Enhanced effective area photonic crystal fiber with novel air hole design, J Light Technol 28(19)Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Yin W, Wei Z, Yidong H Jiangde P (2006) SBS Slow light in high nonlinearity photonic crystal fiber. Opt Soc AmGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Christelle M, Bill C, Majid E-H, Christian G, Benjamin JE, Thomas PW, Liam O’Faolain, Thomas FK (2009) Slow light enhancement of nonlinear effects in silicon engineered photonic crystal waveguides. Opt Soc AmGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Yamiao W, Xia Z, Xiaomin R, Long Z, Xiaolong L, Yongqing H (2009) Ultra-flattened chromatic dispersion photonic crystal fiber with high nonlinearity for supercontinuum generation, SPIE-OSA-IEEE vol. 7630 76301F-1Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Abdur Razzak M, Yoshinori N, Feroza B, Kazuya M, Shubi K, Nguyen HH, Tatsuya K, Nianyu Z Dispersion-flattened modified hexagonal photonic crystal fibers with low confinement loss. Opt Rev 14(4), 165–168Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Tianye H, Jianfei L, Songnian F, Tang M, Shum P, Deming L (2014) Slot spiral silicon photonic crystal fiber with property of both high birefringence and high nonlinearity. 6(3)Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Chengcheng G, Jian W (2012) Elliptical–spiral photonic crystal fibers with wideband high birefringence. Large Nonlin Low Dispers, 4(6)Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Chengcheng G, Jian W, Junqiang S, Huifeng W (2012) Achieving wide-band high birefringence, large nonlinearity and low dispersion using variable-spiral soft glass photonic crystal fibers. In: 17th Opto-Electronics and Communications Conference (OECC 2012)Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Mishra SS, Vinod KS (2011) Comparative study of fundamental properties of honey comb photonic crystal fiber at 1.55 μm wavelength. J Micro Optoelectron Electromagn Appl, 10(2)Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Soumya B, Sudheer SK, MahadevanPillai VP (2013) Design and simulation of highly nonlinear and low loss square photonic crystal fiber. In: 4th International Workshop on Fiber Optics in Access Network (FOAN)Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Wenjuan L, Yumin L, Zhongyuan Y, Lihong Han, Ding N (2010) Design of high nonlinearity fiber with square lattice novel microstructure photonic crystal fiber, 978–1-4244-4964-4/10/$25.00Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Jianfei L, Fan Y, Yingmao X, Xinghua W, Tianye H, Zuzhou X, Fangguang K (Sep 1, 2015) Ultrahigh birefringent nonlinear slot silicon microfiber with low dispersion. IEEE Photon Technol Lett 27(17)Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Jiyoung P, Jongki K, Songrae L, Soan K, Kyunghwan O (2010) Ultra-flattened dispersion and high nonlinearity in a square lattice photonic crystal fiber. In: 15th OptoElectronics and Communications Conference (OECC2010) Technical DigestGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Tianye H, Jianfei L, Songnian F, Tang M, Shum P Deming L (2014) Slot spiral silicon photonic crystal fiber with property of both high birefringence and high nonlinearity. 6(3)Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Jouri AM, Simohamed LM, Boudrioua A, Ziane O, Hassani B, Dadi A (2012) Analysis of indexed-guided highly birefringent photonic crystal fiber employing different cladding geometries. Centre Universitaired ‘EL OUED, J Fundam Appl Sci 4(1), 32–38Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Lin A, Zheng Z, Zheng L, Tao Z, Jiangtao C (Aug 1, 2009) Ultrahigh birefringent photonic crystal fiber with ultralow confinement loss using four airholes in the core. J Light Technol 27(15)Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Hasan MI, SelimHabib M, SamiulHabib M, AbdurRazzak SM (2014) Highly nonlinear and highly birefringent dispersion compensating photonic crystal fiber. Opt Fiber Technol 20 32–38Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Saeed O, Fahimeh T (2012) Doped-core octagonal photonic crystal fiber with ultra-flattened nearly zero dispersion and low confinement loss in a wide wavelength range. Fiber Integr Opt 31, 178–185Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Feifei S, Meicheng L, Yu Z, Liancheng Z (2009) High birefringence photonic crystal fiber design. SPIE, 7493 749351–1Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Dhanu KG, Prasannan G, Sudheer SK. MahadevanPillai VP (2015) Design of ultra-low loss highly nonlinear dispersion flattened octagonal photonic crystal fibers. Opt Photon J 5, 335–343Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Zhen-KF, Shu-GL, Hai-LC, Qiang L, Guo-WA, Shuo L (2015) A highly nonlinear and birefringent photonic crystal fiber with zero dispersion at 2 µm eye-safe spectral window. J Mod Opt 62(8), 676–681Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Olyaeea S, Sadeghib M, Taghipoura F (2012) Design of low-dispersion fractal photonic crystal fiber. Int J Opt Photon (IJOP) 6(1), Winter-SpringGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Knight JC, Skryabin DV (Nov 12, 2007) Nonlinear waveguide optics and photonic crystal fibers. Opt Exp 15(23), 15365Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Matthew GW, Kevin C, Rodrigo AC, Frédéric G, William JW, Andrey VG, Dmitry VS, Jonathan CK (June 1, 2009) Solitons in hollow core photonic crystal fiber: engineering nonlinearity and compressing pulses. J Light Technol 27(11)Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Jalal Uddin M, Shah Alam M (2008) Dispersion and confinement loss of photonic crystal fiber. Asian J Informat Technol 7(8): 344–349Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ashish Kumar Ghunawat
    • 1
  • Anjali Jain
    • 1
  • Kumari Nikita
    • 1
  • Manish Tiwari
    • 1
  • Ghanshyam Singh
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Electronics and CommunicationMNIT Jaipur, JLN MargJaipurIndia

Personalised recommendations