Recent Advancement on Map Kinase Cascade in Biotic Stress
Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are cell-signaling enzymes that govern an extraordinarily discrete range of biological processes in eukaryotes. MAPK cascade has come up as one of the most well-studied signaling pathways in recent years. It plays a vital role in transmitting extracellular signals to the nucleus in response to various environmental stresses. A MAPK cascade composes of a three strata system where each stratum is phosphorylated by upper stratum. It is depicted as a MAP3K-MAP2K-MAPK module that serves as a link between upstream receptors and downstream targets. MAP2K being the middle point of this cascade converge all the signals from upstream MAP3Ks and target genome through downstream MAPKs. Occasionally, MAP4Ks also get employed in coupling upstream signaling components to the core MAPK cascade. MAPKs then direct various genes involved in stress responses as well as cellular and developmental processes. Therefore, in this chapter, an endeavor has been made to compile the role of MAPK cascade in biotic stress in plants.
KeywordsElicitor-triggered immunity PAMP-triggered immunity Plant defense Signal transduction
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