Plant Cell Wall: A Simple Physical Barrier or a Complex Defense Modulator – Exploring Its Dynamic Role at Plant-Fungus Interface
Plants are continuously threatened by many pathogens, among which fungal pathogen accounts for a measureable large quantity. Understanding of plant-fungal interaction is constantly coevolving along with the evolution of both the interacting partners. According to the previous scientific literature, many fungi are associated with a single host. Present chapter is focused at elaborating the role of plant cell wall in participating in the interaction. Host cell wall is the outermost barrier which any pathogen has to breach for successful invasion and establishment. Now the question is what is the role of host cell wall in regulating the pathogen’s infiltration or restriction? Present study explains the structural dynamism of cell wall which is believed to have functional relevance and is dependent on the behavior of the infecting fungi. Moreover, cell wall is also known to elicit immune signals that brings about transcriptional reprogramming and helps in mounting defense against attacking fungi. Additionally, cell wall-mediated responses trigger expressions of many antimicrobials which are regulated by hormone signaling pathways. This study also sheds light on the impact of plant-fungal association on tritrophic interactions with other beneficial and pathogenic biotic components. But the role of host cell wall while dealing with multiple interacting partners is still elusive. Thus, the knowledge of cell wall glycobiology is expected to proceed further based on researches conducted at natural microenvironments.
KeywordsPlant-fungal interaction Host cell wall Elicitation Defense signaling Tritrophic interactions
Authors are grateful to Dr. Ryan Bracewell, University of Montana, USA, for providing the beetle pictures.
- Abreha KB, Alexandersson E, Vossen JH, Anderson P, Andreasson E (2015) Inoculation of transgenic resistant potato by Phytophthora infestans affects host plant choice of a generalist moth. Plos One 10(6):e0129815. https://doi.org/10.1371/ journal.pone.0129815.
- Albersheim P, Darvill A, Roberts K, Sederoff R, Staehelin A (2010) Plant cell walls. Garland Sci 154:483Google Scholar
- Assaad FF, Qiu J-L, Youngs H, Ehrhardt D, Zimmerli L, Kalde M, Wanner G, Peck SC, Edwards H, Ramonell K (2004) The PEN1 syntaxin defines a novel cellular compartment upon fungal attack and is required for the timely assembly of papillae. Mol Biol Cell 15:5118–5129PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Beliën T, van Campenhout S, van Acker M, Robben j, Courtin c M, Delcour j A, Volckaert G (2007) Mutational analysis of endoxylanases XylA and XylB from the phytopathogen Fusarium graminearum reveals comprehensive insights into their inhibitor insensitivity. Appl Environ Microbiol 73:4602–4608PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Buchanan BB, Gruissem W, Jones RL (2015) Biochemistry and molecular biology of plants. Wiley, SomersetGoogle Scholar
- Harrington TC (2005) Ecology and evolution of mycophagous bark beetles and their fungal partners. Insect-Fungal Assoc 1:22Google Scholar
- Harris PJ, Stone BA (2008) Chemistry and molecular organization of plant cell walls, Biomass Recalcitrance. Blackwell, Oxford, pp 61–93Google Scholar
- Hernández-Blanco C, Feng DX, Hu J, Sánchez-Vallet A, Deslandes L, Llorente F, Berrocal-Lobo M, Keller H, Barlet X, Sánchez-Rodríguez C (2007) Impairment of cellulose synthases required for Arabidopsis secondary cell wall formation enhances disease resistance. Plant Cell 19:890–903PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Joubert A, Bataille-Simoneau N, Campion C, Guillemette T, Hudhomme P, Iacomi-Vasilescu B, Leroy T, Pochon S, Poupard P, Simoneau P (2011) Cell wall integrity and high osmolarity glycerol pathways are required for adaptation of Alternaria brassicicola to cell wall stress caused by brassicaceous indolic phytoalexins. Cell Microbiol 13:62–80PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Lamit LJ, Gehring CA (2012) Dynamic interplay in a multivariate world: case studies in mycorrhizal and endophytic fungal interactions with herbivores, Biocomplexity Plant-Fungal Interact. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, pp 185–204Google Scholar
- Mang HG, Laluk KA, Parsons EP, Kosma DK, Cooper BR, Park HC, Abuqamar S, Boccongelli C, Miyazaki S, Consiglio F (2009) The Arabidopsis RESURRECTION1 gene regulates a novel antagonistic interaction in plant defense to biotrophs and necrotrophs. Plant Physiol 151:290–305PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Miller JM, Keen FP (1960) Biology and control of the western pine beetle: a summary of the first fifty years of research. US Department of Agriculture, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
- Petrini O (1996) Ecological and physiological aspects of host-specificity in endophytic fungi. In: Endophytic fungi in grasses and woody plants. APS, St Paul, pp 87–100Google Scholar
- Pogorelko G, Lionetti V, Fursova O, Sundaram RM, Qi M, Whitham SA, Bogdanove AJ, Bellincampi D, Zabotina OA (2013) Arabidopsis and Brachypodium distachyon transgenic plants expressing Aspergillus nidulans acetylesterases have decreased degree of polysaccharide acetylation and increased resistance to pathogens. Plant Physiol 162:9–23PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Ron M, Avni A (2004) The receptor for the fungal elicitor ethylene-inducing xylanase is a member of a resistance-like gene family in tomato. Plant Cell 16:1604–1615Google Scholar
- Stein M, Dittgen J, Sánchez-Rodríguez C, Hou B-H, Molina A, Schulze-Lefert P, Lipka V, Somerville S (2006) Arabidopsis PEN3/PDR8, an ATP binding cassette transporter, contributes to nonhost resistance to inappropriate pathogens that enter by direct penetration. Plant Cell 18:731–746PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar