Arabidopsis thaliana as a Model Organism to Study Plant-Pathogen Interactions

  • Shachi AgrawalEmail author


Arabidopsis thaliana (a crucifer) provides a model system in every discipline of plant sciences including plant pathology with a varied array of molecular and genetic resources and biological information. Members of crucifer are widely distributed geographically and are well adapted to various plant pathogens such as fungi, bacteria, viruses, and nematodes. Besides small plant size, short life cycle, small genome size, availability of whole genome sequence, and easy genetic and mutational analysis, its response to the pathogen attack in a similar fashion as other higher plant species and an extensive collection of mutants available to determine defense pathway are the characteristics, which identify this plant as an indispensable research model in plant-pathogen interaction studies. This chapter mainly focuses on various existing model pathosystems of Arabidopsis with viral, bacterial, and fungal pathogens including an outlook on how this knowledge can be translated from Arabidopsis-pathogen model system to other crop plants. A general and brief overview of plant-pathogen interactions and how A. thaliana recognize and respond to pathogens is also portrayed.


Effector molecules Hypersensitive response (HR) Plant defense Plant defensin gene PR proteins Resistance genes Signal molecules Systemic acquired resistance (SAR) 



Avirulence (Avr) protein

Small proteins produced by pathogens and recognized by the host cell resistance proteins. These proteins trigger defense responses in plants. Avr proteins are often type III secretion system effectors, involved in pathogenicity.

Basal defense

Plant defense that occurs early in the host-pathogen interaction in response to the perception by plant pattern recognition receptors of microbial-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs). Basal defense is MAMP-triggered immunity (MTI) plus weak effector-triggered immunity (ETI), minus effector-triggered susceptibility (ETS).


A pathogen that colonizes living tissues for its growth and reproduction.

Effector molecules

Pathogen-produced molecules that interfere with and suppress plant defense mechanisms, e.g., bacterial proteins, delivered by the bacterial type III secretion system (TTSS) to the plant cell interior.

Effector-triggered immunity (ETI)

Immune responses triggered by recognition of specific pathogen effectors. The ETI response relies on R genes. Plant ETI often causes an apoptotic hypersensitive response.

Effector-triggered susceptibility (ETS)

The state of a plant in which the plant’s defense mechanism become suppressed by pathogen effector molecules.


Any metabolite isolated from pathogens that at a very low concentration induces a hypersensitive response in host plants.

Hypersensitive response (HR)

A complex defense response that is often associated with resistance (R) protein-mediated immunity. HR culminates in programmed cell death in cells in the vicinity of the pathogen, which may inhibit pathogen spreading.

MAMP-triggered immunity (MTI)

Immunity raised after recognition of MAMPs by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) localized on the surface of plant cells.

Microbial-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs)

More recent term used for PAMPs. A series of essential and conserved molecular motifs of both pathogenic and nonpathogenic microbes that can be recognized by pattern recognition receptors in plants.


A pathogen that rapidly kills the host tissue and feeds on the dead tissue.

PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI)

Immunity raised from the interaction of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) in plant cells with elicitor molecules. It is a part of the first line of defense and results in a basal level of resistance.

Pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs)

A set of molecular structures (epitopes) not shared with the host but shared by related pathogens, relatively invariant.

Pathogenesis-related (PR) genes

Plant genes that activates after infection by pathogens.

Pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins

Plant proteins that are synthesized in response to microbial attack and that serve to limit the growth pathogens. They are induced as a part of systemic acquired resistance.

Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs)

Germ line-encoded proteins that can recognize microbe-associated molecular patterns and induce signaling cascade in innate immunity responses.

Plant defensin (PDF)

Small, highly stable, cysteine-rich peptides that constitute a part of the innate immune system, mostly involved in defense against a broad range of fungal pathogens.

R genes and R proteins

Plants have R genes (resistance genes) whose products mediate resistance to specific microbes, e.g., virus, bacteria, fungus, oomycete, nematode, etc. The product of R gene is R protein that allows recognition of specific pathogen effectors, either through direct binding or by recognition of the effector’s alteration of a host protein.

Systemic acquired resistance (SAR)

Inducible whole-body resistance. The development of a general immune capacity throughout the entire plant following an initial invasion by a pathogen.


  1. Agrios GN (1997) Plant pathology. Academic, San DiegoGoogle Scholar
  2. Alonso-Blanco C, Aarts MG, Bentsink L et al (2009) What has natural variation taught us about plant development, physiology, and adaptation? Plant Cell 21:1877–1896CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  3. Andargie M, Li J (2016) Arabidopsis thaliana: a model host plant to study plant–pathogen interaction using rice false smut isolates of Ustilaginoidea virens. Front Plant Sci 7:192. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  4. Arabidopsis-Genome-Initiative (2000) Analysis of the genome sequence of the flowering plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Nature 408:796–815CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Asano Y, Hiramoto T, Nishino R, Aiba Y, Kimura T, Yoshihara K et al (2012) Critical role of gut microbiota in the production of biologically active, free catecholamines in the gut lumen of mice. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 303:G1288–G1295CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Atwell S, Huang YS, Vilhjálmsson BJ et al (2010) Genome-wide association study of 107 phenotypes in Arabidopsis thaliana inbred lines. Nature 465:627–631CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  7. Berger S, Sinha AK, Roitsch T (2007) Plant physiology meets phytopathology: plant primary metabolism and plant-pathogen interactions. J Exp Bot 58:4019–4026CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Buell CR (1998) Arabidopsis: a weed leading the field of plant-pathogen interactions. Plant Physiol Biochem 36(1):177–186CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Burgyan J, Havelda Z (2011) Viral suppressors of RNA silencing. Trends Plant Sci 16:265–272CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Callaway A, Liu W, Andrianov V et al (1996) Characterization of cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) resistance in virus-resistant ecotypes of Arabidopsis. Mol Plant-Microbe Interact 9:810–818CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Calo L, García I, Gotor C, Romero LC (2006) Leaf hairs influence phytopathogenic fungus infection and confer an increased resistance when expressing a Trichoderma α-1,3-glucanase. J Exp Bot 57:3911–3920CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Carrington J, Kasschau K, Mahajan S, Schaad M (1996) Cell-to-cell and long-distance movement of viruses in plants. Plant Cell 8:1669–1681CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  13. Chao J, Jin J, Wang D et al (2014) Cytological and transcriptional dynamics analysis of host plant revealed stage-specific biological processes related to compatible rice-Ustilaginoidea virens interaction. PLoS One 9:e91391. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  14. Chen ZY, Agnew JL, Cohen JD et al (2007) Pseudomonas syringae type III effector AvrRpt2 alters Arabidopsis thaliana auxin physiology. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:20131–20136CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  15. Clarke JD, Volko SM, Ledford H et al (2000) Roles of salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, and ethylene in cpr-induced resistance in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell 12:2175–2190CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  16. Cooley MB, Pathirana S, Wu HJ et al (2000) Members of the Arabidopsis HRT/RPP8 family of resistance genes confer resistance to both viral and oomycete pathogens. Plant Cell 12:663–676CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  17. Crute IJ, Beynon J, Dangl E et al (1994) Microbial pathogenesis of Arabidopsis. In: Meyerowitz EM, Somerville CR (eds) Arabidopsis. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, Cold Spring Harbor, pp 11705–11747Google Scholar
  18. Cunnac S, Lindeberg M, Collmer A (2009) Pseudomonas syringae type III secretion system effectors: repertoires in search of functions. Curr Opin Microbiol 12:53–60CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Dangl JL, Jones JD (2001) Plant pathogens and integrated defence responses to infection. Nature 411:826–833CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Dangl J, Lehnackers H, Kiedrowski S et al (1991) Interactions between Arabidopsis thaliana and phytopathogenic Pseudomonas pathovars: a model for the genetics of disease resistance. In: Hennecke H, Verma DPS (eds) Advances in molecular genetics of plant-microbe interactions, vol 1. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 78–83CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. de Torres-Zabala M, Truman W, Bennett MH et al (2007) Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato hijacks the Arabidopsis abscisic acid signalling pathway to cause disease. EMBO J 26:1434–1443CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  22. Dempsey DA, Wobbe KK, Klessig DF (1993) Resistance and susceptible responses of Arabidopsis thaliana to Turnip Crinkle Virus. Mol Plant Pathol 83:1021–1029Google Scholar
  23. Dempsey DA, Pathirana MS, Wobbe KK, Klessig DF (1997) Identification of an Arabidopsis locus required for resistance to turnip crinkle virus. Plant J 2:301–311CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Ford TL, Cooley JT, Christou P (1994) Current status for gene transfer into rice utilizing variety-independent delivery systems. In: Ziegler RS, Leong SA, Teng PS (eds) Rice blast disease. CAB International, Wallingford, pp 195–208Google Scholar
  25. Francois O, Blum MG, Jakobsson M, Rosenberg NA (2008) Demographic history of European populations of Arabidopsis thaliana. PLoS Genet 4:e1000075CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  26. Gao R, Liu P, Yong Y, Wong SM (2016) Genome-wide transcriptomic analysis reveals correlation between higher WRKY61 expression and reduced symptom severity in Turnip crinkle virus infected Arabidopsis thaliana. Sci Rep 6:24604CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  27. Garcia-Brugger A, Lamotte O, Vandelle E et al (2006) Early signaling events induced by elicitors of plant defenses. Mol Plant-Microbe Interact 19:711–724CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Glazebrook J, Rogers EE, Ausubel FM (1997) Use of Arabidopsis for genetic dissection of plant defense responses. Annu Rev Genet 31(1):547–569CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. He P, Chintamanani S, Chen Z et al (2004) Activation of a COI1-dependent pathway in Arabidopsis by Pseudomonas syringae type III effectors and coronatine. Plant J 37:589–602CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Heath MC (2000) Hypersensitive response-related death. Plant Mol Biol 44:321–334CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Hills GJ, Plaskitt KA, Young ND et al (1987) Immunogold localization of the intracellular sites of structural and nonstructural tobacco mosaic virus proteins. Virology 161:488–496CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Hirano SS, Upper CD (2000) Bacteria in the leaf ecosystem with emphasis on Pseudomonas syringae-a pathogen, ice nucleus, and epiphyte. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 64:11624–11653CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Holub EB, Beynon JL, Crute IR (1994) Phenotypic and genotypic characterizations of interactions between isolates of Peronospora parasitica and accessions of Arabidopsis thaliana. Mol Plant-Microbe Interact 7:223–239CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Holub EB, Brose E, Tor M et al (1995) Phenotypic and genotypic variation in the interaction between Arabidopsis thaliana and Albugo candida. Mol Plant Microbe Interact 81(1):916–928CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Hossain MM, Sultana F, Kubota M et al (2007) The plant growth-promoting fungus Penicillium simplicissimum GP17-2 induces resistance in Arabidopsis thaliana by activation of multiple defense signals. Plant Cell Physiol 48:1724–1736CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Ishikawa M, Obata F, Kumagai T, Ohno T (1991) Isolation of mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana in which accumulation of tobacco mosaic virus coat protein is reduced to low levels. Mol Gen Genet 230:33–38CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Jeong RD, Chandra-Shekara AC, Kachroo A et al (2008) HRT-mediated hypersensitive response and resistance to Turnip crinkle virus in Arabidopsis does not require the function of TIP, the presumed guardee protein. Mol Plant-Microbe Interact 21:1316–1324CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Jones JD, Dangl JL (2006) The plant immune system. Nature 444:323–329CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Jones DA, Takemoto D (2004) Plant innate immunity – direct and indirect recognition of general and specific pathogen-associated molecules. Curr Opin Immunol 16:48–62CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Kachroo P, Yoshioka K, Shah J et al (2000) Resistance to turnip crinkle virus in Arabidopsis is regulated by two host genes and is salicylic acid dependent but NPR1, ethylene, and jasmonate independent. Plant Cell 12:677–690CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  41. Keen NT (1990) Gene-for-gene complementarity in plant-pathogen interactions. Annu Rev Genet 24:447–463CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Kim MG, Kim WY, Lee JR et al (2008) Host immunity-suppressive molecular weapons of phytopathogenic bacteria. J Plant Biol 51:235–239Google Scholar
  43. Klement ZG, Farkas L, Lovrekovich L (1964) Hypersensitive reaction induced by phytopathogenic bacteria in the tobacco leaf. Phytopathology 54:11474–11477Google Scholar
  44. Kloek AP, Verbsky ML, Sharma SB et al (2001) Resistance to Pseudomonas syringae conferred by an Arabidopsis thaliana coronatine-insensitive (coi1) mutation occurs through two distinct mechanisms. Plant J 26:509–522CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Koornneef M, Alonso-Blanco C, Vreugdenhil D (2004) Naturally occurring genetic variation in Arabidopsis thaliana. Annu Rev Plant Biol 55:141–172CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Kunkel BN (1996) A useful weed put to work: genetic analysis of disease resistance in Arabidopsis thaliana. Trends Genet 12:63–69CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Kunkel BN, Brooks DM (2002) Cross talk between signaling pathways in pathogen defense. Curr Opin Plant Biol 5:325–331CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Lai J, Chen H, Teng K et al (2009) RKP, a RING finger E3 ligase induced by BSCTV C4 protein, affects geminivirus infection by regulation of the plant cell cycle. Plant J 57:905–917CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Laurie-Berry N, Joardar V, Street IH, Kunkel BN (2006) The Arabidopsis thaliana JASMONATE INSENSITIVE 1 gene is required infection by Pseudomonas syringae. Mol Plant-Microbe Interact 19:789–800CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Lee S, Stenger DC, Bisaro DM, Davis KR (1994) Identification of loci in Arabidopsis that confer resistance to geminivirus infection. Plant J 6:525–535CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Leisner S, Turgeon R, Howell SH (1993) Effects of host plant development and genetic determinants on the long-distance movement of cauliflower mosaic virus in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell 5:191–202CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  52. Lewis LA, Polanski K, de Torres-Zabala M et al (2015) Transcriptional dynamics driving MAMP-triggered immunity and pathogen effector-mediated immunosuppression in Arabidopsis leaves following infection with Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato DC3000. Plant Cell 27(11):3038–3064CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  53. Li XH, Simon AE (1990) Symptom intensification on cruciferous hosts by the virulent satellite RNA of turnip crinkle virus. Phytopathology 80:238–242CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Lindeberg M, Cunnac S, Collmer A (2009) The evolution of Pseudomonas syringae host specificity and type III effector repertoires. Mol Plant Pathol 10:767–775CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Lindow SE, Brandl MT (2003) Microbiology of the phyllosphere. Appl Environ Microbiol 69:1875–1883CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  56. Matthews RE (1991) Plant virology, 3rd edn. Academic Press, San DiegoGoogle Scholar
  57. McDowell JM, Dangl JL (2000) Signal transduction in the plant immune response. Trends Biochem Sci 25:79–82CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Melotto M, Underwood W, Koczan J et al (2006) Plant stomata function in innate immunity against bacterial invasion. Cell 126:969–980CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Monier JM, Lindow SE (2003) Differential survival of solitary and aggregated bacteria cells promotes aggregate formation on leaf surfaces. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100:15977–15982CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  60. Narasimhan ML, Damsz B, Coca MA et al (2001) A plant defense response effector induces microbial apoptosis. Mol Cell 8:921–930CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Navarro L, Dunoyer P, Jay F et al (2006) A plant miRNA contributes to antibacterial resistance by repressing auxin signaling. Science 312:436–439CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Nimchuk Z, Eulgem T, Holt BF 3rd, Dangl JL (2003) Recognition and response in the plant immune system. Annu Rev Genet 37:579–609CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Nomura K, Melotto M, He SY (2005) Suppression of host defense in compatible plant-Pseudomonas syringae interactions. Curr Opin Plant Biol 8:361–368CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Oliver RP, Ipcho SV (2004) Arabidopsis pathology breathes new life into the necrotrophs-vs.-biotrophs classification of fungal pathogens. Mol Plant Pathol 5:347–352CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Pieterse CM, Leon-Reyes A, Van Der Ent S, Van Wees SC (2009) Networking by small-molecule hormones in plant immunity. Nat Chem Biol 5:308–316CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Pu XJ, Li YN, Wei LJ et al (2016) Mitochondrial energy-dissipation pathway and cellular redox disruption compromises Arabidopsis resistance to turnip crinkle virus infection. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 473(2):421–427CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Quirino BF, Bent AF (2003) Deciphering host resistance and pathogen virulence: the Arabidopsis/Pseudomonas interaction as a model. Mol Plant Pathol 4(6):517–530CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Ren T, Qu F, Morris TJ (2000) HRT gene function requires interaction between a NAC protein and viral capsid protein to confer resistance to turnip crinkle virus. Plant Cell 12:1917–1926CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  69. Roux F, Bergelson J (2016) Chapter four-the genetics underlying natural variation in the biotic interactions of Arabidopsis thaliana: the challenges of linking evolutionary genetics and community ecology. Curr Top Dev Biol 119:111–156CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Scofield SR, Tobias CM, Rathjen JP et al (1996) Molecular basis of gene-for-gene specificity in bacterial speck disease of tomato. Science 274:2063–2065CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Simon AE, Li XH, Lew JE et al (1992) Susceptibility and resistance of Arabidopsis thaliana to turnip crinkle virus. Mol Plant-Microbe Interact 5:496–503CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Stahl EA, Bishop JG (2000) Plant-pathogen arms races at the molecular level. Curr Opin Plant Biol 3:299–304CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Talbot N, Foster A (2001) Genetics and genomics of the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe grisea: developing an experimental model for understanding fungal diseases of cereals. Adv Bot Res 34:263–287CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Tang X, Frederick RD, Zhou J et al (1996) Initiation of plant disease resistance by physical interaction of AvrPto and Pto Kinase. Science 274:2060–2063CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Thakur M, Sohal BS (2013) Role of elicitors in inducing resistance in plants against pathogen infection: a review. ISRN Biochem 2013:762412CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  76. Thilmony R, Underwood W, He SY (2006) Genome-wide transcriptional analysis of the Arabidopsis thaliana interaction with the plant pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 and the human pathogen Escherichia coli O157: H7. Plant J 46:34–53CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Thomma BP, Penninckx IA, Broekaert WF, Cammue BP (2001) The complexity of disease signaling in Arabidopsis. Curr Opin Immunol 13:63–68CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Torres MA, Dangl JL, Jones JD (2002) Arabidopsis gp91phox homologues AtrbohD and AtrbohF are required for accumulation of reactive oxygen intermediates in the plant defense response. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 99:517–522CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Tsuda K, Sato M, Glazebrook J et al (2008) Interplay between MAMP-triggered and SA-mediated defense responses. Plant J 53:763–775CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Tsuji J, Somerville SC (1992) First report of the natural infection of Arabidopsis thaliana by Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris. Plant Dis 761(1):539CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Uknes S, Winter AM, Delaney T et al (1993) Biological induction of systemic acquired resistance in Arabidopsis. Mol Plant-Microbe Interact 6:692–698CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Uppalapati SR, Ishiga Y, Wangdi T et al (2007) The phytotoxin coronatine contributes to pathogen fitness and is required for suppression of salicylic acid accumulation in tomato inoculated with Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000. Mol Plant-Microbe Interact 20:955–965CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Uren AG, O’Rourke K, Aravind LA et al (2000) Identification of paracaspases and metacaspases: two ancient families of caspase-like proteins, one of which plays a key role in MALT lymphoma. Mol Cell 6:961–967PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Waigmann E, Lucas WJ, Citovsky V, Zambryski P (1994) Direct functional assay for tobacco mosaic virus cell-to-cell movement protein and identification of a domain involved in increasing plasmodesmal permeability. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 91:1433–1437CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  85. Wolf S, Deom CM, Beachy RN, Lucas WJ (1989) Movement protein of tobacco mosaic virus modifies plasmodesmatal size exclusion limit. Science 246:377–379CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Xin XF, He SY (2013) Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000: a model pathogen for probing disease susceptibility and hormone signaling in plants. Annu Rev Phytopathol 51:473–498CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Yoshii M, Yoshioka N, Ishikawa M, Naito S (1998) Isolation of an Arabidopsis thaliana mutant in which accumulation of Cucumber Mosaic Virus coat protein is delayed. Plant J 13:211–219CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Yu L, Quinn MT, Cross AR, Dinauer MC (1998) Gp91(phox) is the heme binding subunit of the superoxide-generating NADPH oxidase. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 95:7993–7998CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  89. Zhang Z, Li Q, Li Z et al (2007) Dual regulation role of GH3.5 in salicylic acid and auxin signaling during Arabidopsis-Pseudomonas syringae interaction. Plant Physiol 145:450–464CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  90. Zhang Y, Zhang K, Fang A et al (2014) Specific adaptation of Ustilaginoidea virens in occupying host florets revealed by comparative and functional genomics. Nat Commun 5:3849PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Zhao Y, Thilmony R, Bender CL et al (2003) Virulence systems of Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato promote bacterial speck disease in tomato by targeting the jasmonate signaling pathway. Plant J 36:485–499CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of BotanyGargi CollegeNew DelhiIndia

Personalised recommendations