Advanced Numerical Methods for the Assessment of Integrated Gasification and CHP Generation Technologies

  • Ahmed M. Salem
  • Umesh Kumar
  • Ainul Nadirah Izaharuddin
  • Harnek Dhami
  • Tata Sutardi
  • Manosh C. PaulEmail author
Part of the Energy, Environment, and Sustainability book series (ENENSU)


The chapter gives an overview of new techniques developed and used in coal, biomass and waste materials gasification. All of the above-mentioned materials have similar properties for hydrocarbon content. As a consequence, most of them are used for power and heat generation through gasification technology. The chapter discusses advanced kinetic as well as computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modelling schemes valid for a wide range of coal and biomass materials using a downdraft gasifier. The models show validated results with experimental data. Underground coal gasification (UCG) is also discussed, modelled and verified to some extent. Applications leading to the combined heat and power (CHP) generation from syngas produced through the gasification of such feedstocks are presented.


Upper Case Letters


Pre-exponential factor (s−1)


Concentration (mol/m3)


Diameter (m)


Energy (kJ/mol)


Enthalpy (kJ/mol)


Kinetic constant (s−1)


Molecular mass (kg/mol)


Pressure (Pa)


Hearth Load (Nm3/(h m2))


Temperature (K)


Net rate of formation (mol m−3s−1)


Volume (m3)


Power (W)

Lower Case Letters


Specific heat at const. pressure (J  mol−1 K−1)


Mass (kg)


No. of moles (mol)


Reaction rate (mol m−3s−1)


Time (s)


Velocity (ms−1)


Composition fraction


Height (m)


Heat source (W/m2 K)


Reaction rate coefficient for reaction i


Rate exponent of reacting species


The flux of species i


Mass stoichiometric coefficient







Moisture content (%)


Air-to-fuel ratio


Equivalence ratio


Char reactivity factor


Heating rate (K s−1)




Normal cubic metre
















Greek Letters




Change in state


Temperature exponent

\( \tau_{ij} \)

Stress tensor

\( \varGamma_{i} \)

Fick diffusion coefficients


Kronecker delta

\( \rho g_{i} \)

Gravitational body force


Viscosity (kg/m s)


Turbulent Prandtl number



Financial support for the research work presented in this chapter is received from the Innovate UK (132362, TS/N011686/1), Interface Food and Drink (IFD0190) and University of Glasgow KE Fund (GKE100). AMS, ANI and TS also thank, respectively, the British Embassy in Egypt and The Egyptian Cultural Affairs and Missions Sector, the Malaysian Government Majlis Amanah Rakyat (MARA) and the Ministry of Research and Higher Education (KEMENRISTEKDIKTI) Republic of Indonesia, for supporting their postgraduate research study at the University of Glasgow.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ahmed M. Salem
    • 1
  • Umesh Kumar
    • 1
  • Ainul Nadirah Izaharuddin
    • 1
  • Harnek Dhami
    • 1
  • Tata Sutardi
    • 1
  • Manosh C. Paul
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Systems, Power & Energy Research Division, School of EngineeringUniversity of GlasgowGlasgowUK

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