Status and Perspective of the Red-crowned Crane Based on Genetic Diversity

  • Takuya Akiyama
  • Tetsuo I. Kohyama
  • Chizuko Nishida
  • Ryuichi Masuda
Part of the Ecological Research Monographs book series (ECOLOGICAL)


Although the population inhabiting Hokkaido (island population) of the red-crowned crane had been reduced to near extinction at the end of the nineteenth century, the population size has recovered and continues increasing now thanks to conservation activities. The previous studies reported that the genetic variation of the island population was lower than the continental population and there were not regional genetic differences. However, no direct comparison between the recent and past genetic structures has been performed. To investigate the spatiotemporal change of genetic variation and population structure, we performed mitochondrial DNA analyses using temporal samples collected during 1787–2014, including stuffed specimens. We found only three haplotypes among the 230 red-crowned cranes. Our results showed that the haplotype frequencies have not been changed during the past decades and the island population has been genetically homogeneous with low genetic variations for at least 100 years.


Bottleneck Control region Grus japonensis Haplotype Mitochondrial DNA Museum samples 


  1. Akiyama T, Nishida C, Momose K, Onuma M, Takami K, Masuda R (2017a) Gene duplication and concerted evolution of mitochondrial DNA in crane species. Mol Phylogenet Evol 106:158–163CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Akiyama T, Momose K, Onuma M, Matsumoto F, Masuda R (2017b) Low genetic variation of red-crowned cranes on Hokkaido Island, Japan, over the hundred years. Zool Sci 34:1–6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Archibald GW (1976) Crane taxonomy as revealed by the unison call. Proc 1975 Int Crane Workshop 1:225–251Google Scholar
  4. Brook BW, Sodhi NS, Bradshaw GJA (2008) Synergies among extinction drivers under global change. Trends Ecol Evol 23:453–460CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Hasegawa O, Takada S, Yoshida MC, Abe S (1999) Variation of mitochondrial control region sequences in three crane species, the red-crowned crane Grus japonensis, the common crane G. grus and the hooded crane G. monacha. Zool Sci 16:685–692CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Keller LF, Waller DM (2002) Inbreeding effects in wild populations. Trends Ecol Evol 17:230–241CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Kohyama TI, Akiyama T, Nishida C, Takami K, Onuma M, Momose K, Masuda R (2015) Isolation and characterization of major histocompatibility complex class II B genes in cranes. Immunogenetics 67:705–710CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Masatomi H (2000) The all of Tancho. Hokkaido Shinbun Press, Sapporo. (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  9. Masatomi H, Momose K, Koga K, Inose M, Matsumoto F, Tomiyama N (2014) Number of the Tancho Grus Japonensis living in Hokkaido in mid-winter of 2012. Bull Akan Intern Crane Center 11:3–17. (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  10. Meine CD, Archibald GW (1996) The cranes: status survey and conservation action plan. IUCN, Gland/CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  11. Miura Y, Shiraishi J, Shiomi A, Kitazawa T, Hiraga T, Matsumoto F, Teraoka H, Masatomi H (2013a) Origin of three red-crowned cranes Grus japonensis found in northeast honshu and west Hokkaido, Japan, from 2008 to 2012. J Vet Med Sci 75:1241–1244CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Miura Y, Shiomi A, Shiraishi J, Makita K, Asakawa M, Kitazawa T, Hiraga T, Momose Y, Momose K, Masatomi H, Teraoka H (2013b) Large-scale survey of mitochondrial D-loop of the red-crowned crane Grus japonensis in Hokkaido, Japan by convenient genotyping method. J Vet Med Sci 75:43–47CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Sugimoto T, Hasegawa O, Azuma N, Masatomi H, Sato F, Matsumoto F, Masatomi Y, Izumi H, Abe S (2015) Genetic structure of the endangered red-crowned cranes in Hokkaido, Japan and conservation implications. Conserv Genet 16:1395–1401CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Takuya Akiyama
    • 1
  • Tetsuo I. Kohyama
    • 2
  • Chizuko Nishida
    • 3
  • Ryuichi Masuda
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Natural History Sciences, Graduate School of ScienceHokkaido UniversitySapporoJapan
  2. 2.Division of Biosphere Science, Faculty of Environmental Earth ScienceHokkaido UniversitySapporoJapan
  3. 3.Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of ScienceHokkaido UniversitySapporoJapan

Personalised recommendations