Multi-QoS and Interference Concerned Reliable Routing in Military Information System

  • V. Vignesh
  • K. Premalatha
Conference paper
Part of the Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing book series (AISC, volume 645)


Secured and trustable routing in military information system is a sophisticated task in which sharing of information with no distortion or collusion is important. Mobile ad hoc networking enables the military communication by forwarding the information to the corresponding nodes on the right time. In the available system, Neighborhood-based Interference-Aware (NIA) routing is performed over an environment of stabilized position node. This research cannot offer support to the military communication system where the troops of soldiers might have to move to different positions. This issue is resolved in the new research strategy by implementing the new framework known as Multi-Objective concerned Reliable Routing in Dynamic MANET (MORR-MANET). In this technical work, optimal routing is performed with due consideration to different QoS parameters making use of pareto-optimal approach. Once the optimal route path is found, interference is prevented through the monitoring of the information regarding the neighborhood. Moreover, this research work is also related to the path breakage due to the resource unavailability or node mobility, as observed in this research work making use of Modified Go-Back-N ARQ technique. The whole research is realized and thereafter shown in the simulation environment, and it is revealed that the proposed research methodology provides a better result, in comparison with the previous research work NIA. The proposed technique indicates better performance in terms of 13% better residual energy, 7% larger the number of live nodes, 13% least relative error compared to the available technique NIA.


Military communication Priority information QoS satisfaction Bandwidth allocation 

1 Introduction

The military aspects found in a mobile ad hoc network offer a great deal of interest and are complex. A military scenario in addition to a hostile environment has many things to be considered and meticulous constraints rather than a MANET used for educational or business. For instance, a military scenario might possess greater necessities concerned with the information security. As the name implies, a mobile ad hoc network consists of mobile nodes. This, in turn, means that a node can transport itself physically between various locations in the network and be in and out of reach from the nodes present in the same network, owing to the range of radio propagation [1].

The performance of MANET in the military communication might be degraded in case of occurrence of interference. The interference in MANET can occur when the information is passed onto the different troops that share the same neighboring nodes. In a case like this, the information, which is transmitted, could be corrupted or left out; hence, the right information on the right time is not received by the troops of soldiers. This has to be prevented for performing a better transmission of information to the troops of soldiers who vary their locations dynamically. In this research work, this problem is solved by implementing the new framework called as Multi-Objective concerned Reliable Routing in Dynamic MANET (MORR-MANET).

The QoS routing issue in ad hoc networks has motivated the researchers in the recent times, and different solutions have been developed in order to guarantee end-to-end quality for flows. The initial solutions considered the bandwidth over an ad hoc link in isolation and attempted to find the paths, which satisfied the quality requirements (e.g., [2, 3]). Such type of solutions did not take the interference between the neighboring links, or that is seen between the different hops in the same flow into consideration. Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) routing protocol is basically an IETF specified link state routing protocol for the Internet [4]. The protocol extended for OSPF is QOSPF (Quality Of Service Open Shortest Path First) [5]. For the purpose of increasing the QoS in order to meet the requirement of real-time traffic, e.g., video conference, streaming video/audio, QoS-aware routing protocols are taken into account for Internet.

Zone Routing Protocol (ZRP) is actually a hybrid routing protocol [6]. It efficiently integrates the benefits of both proactive and reactive routing protocols. In Dynamic Load-Aware Routing protocol (DLAR), network load is defined to be the number of traffic ongoing in its interface queue [7]. The Load-Sensitive Routing (LSR) protocol defines the network load as seen in a node to be the sum of the number of packets that are queued in the interface of the mobile host along with its neighboring hosts [8]. Zafar et al. [9] introduced a novel capacity-constrained QoS-aware routing scheme known as the shortest multipath source: Q-SMS routing that lets the node to get and thereafter make use of the residual capacity estimation to carry out suitable admission control decisions.

Singh et al. [10] introduced the prediction of end-to-end packet delay seen in mobile ad hoc network using AODV, DSDV, and DSR on the basis of Generalized Regression Neural Network (GRNN) and radial basis function. But there exists no link recovery provisioning. Surjeet et al. [11] introduced a new on-demand QoS routing protocol MQAODV for the case of bandwidth-constrained delay-sensitive applications in MANETs. Wang et al. [12] introduced a protocol, which utilizes an alternative path solely if the data packets cannot be delivered through the primary route. Chia-Pang Chen et al. [13] introduced a hybrid genetic algorithm for improving the network life span of wireless sensor networks. Chuan-Kang Ting and Chien-Chih Liao [14] introduced a Memetic Algorithm (MA) for resolving the K-COVER issue during the WSN improvement. Ahmed E.A.A. Abdulla et al. [14] designed a hybrid approach that merges flat multihop routing and hierarchical multihop routing techniques. Behnam Behdani et al. [15] studied about the Mobile Sink Model (MSM) and queue-based delay-tolerant MSM.

2 Secured and Interference-Aware Military Communication

Military communication serves to be the most significant element during the times of war for commanding or sharing the information with troops of soldiers, located in different destinations or places. In the classical world, military communication is conducted by humans, which is not very much efficient due to the delay in the delivery of information. This research work is related to the path disturbances happening owing to the resource unavailability or node mobility.
  1. (1)

    Establishment of the route path based on QoS satisfaction level.

  2. (2)

    Locating the disrupted path and then rerouting the packets.

  3. (3)

    Locating the effect of interference dynamically with due concern given to the behavior of the nodes during mobility.

The steps mentioned above are performed in order to achieve a better routing in the MANET environment; hence, the military communication can be provisioned with security and effectiveness. The overall flow of the proposed research strategy is illustrated in Fig. 1.
Fig. 1

Overall flow of the proposed research methodology

The diagram shown above provides the detailed overview of the proposed research methodology, concerning the accomplishment of the secured and reliable information sharing with the troops of soldiers, positioned in different places. The detailed description of the newly introduced research methodology is given in the following subsections along with suitable examples and diagrams.
  1. A.

    QOS-aware Route Establishment in Military Communication Field

In the MANET environment, nodes are basically wireless devices containing only less resource. Here, the establishment of route with no consideration to the limitation in resource would result in routing failure and leads to the packet drop or delay. But in military communication, rapid and accurate delivery of information is the most necessary aspect that might decide the victory of war. Therefore, considering the QoS factors during the establishment of route path is the most necessary task. In this research, QoS factors taken into consideration are the available bandwidth, available power, end-to-end delay, and the stability of link employed for making the route selection. The node satisfying all these parameter values must be chosen for the establishment of route. In this research, the weighted sum technique is employed for the optimal route path selection, which meets the QoS parameter values.
  1. (1)

    Available Bandwidth (BW): Available bandwidth (BW) indicates the available link bandwidth in the path from source node to the destination node multicast tree.

  2. (2)
    Available Power (P): The available power of a node in multicast tree is represented in Eq. (1).
    $${\text{P}} = {\text{P}}_{\text{Total}} -{\text{E}}_{\text{consumed}}$$
    where PTotal refers to the total energy at a node, and it is predetermined and fixed for every node present in the network.
  3. (3)

    Available Delay (D): The delay (D) is defined as the maximum value of delay in the path from source node to destination nodes.

  4. (4)

    Stability of Link: In this research, a QoS-aware metric is proposed in order to decide over a stable link on the basis of the Link Stability Factor (LSF). The stability factor is estimated making use of contention count, received signal strength, and hop count in the form of QoS parameters.

  5. (5)

    Reliability: The degree to which the result of a measurement, calculation, or specification can be depended on to be accurate.

  1. B.

    Pareto-Optimal Method


Pareto-optimality is a concept seen in multi-criteria optimization, which permits for the optimizing a vector of multiple criteria, facilitating all the trade-offs observed among the optimal combinations of multiple criteria to be assessed. Pareto-optimality owes its origin to the concept of efficiency in economics and has been recently used for different issues in ecology. In the algorithm proposed, only the non-dominated solutions are stored. First, the population is sorted based on the decreasing order of significance to the first objective value. In this manner, the solutions that are good in first objective will arrive first in the list and those with bad value will be the last.

The reason behind can be described as below; this solution can be dominated only by the first solution (best in first objective); it cannot get dominated by other solutions just because its value for the first objective function is higher compared to the other solutions except first. In a similar manner, for the third solution, at most of two comparisons are needed from first and second points. And then for the final point of list, this solution has to be compared with every non-dominated solution. In case the solutions in list are not distinct in the first objective function value, then few changes have to be made in the algorithm proposed. It can be, checking each solution to its next immediate successors, and when any immediate solution dominates this solution, then this point has to be removed from the non-dominated set S1. At last, the non-dominated solutions are displayed. The algorithm proposed can be executed making use of the following steps.
  1. (1)

    Sort all the solutions (P1…PN) in descending order of their first objective function (F1) and generate a sorted list (O).

  2. (2)

    Initialize a set S1 and add the first element of list O to S1.

  3. (3)

    For each solution Oi (other than first solution) of list O, compare the solution Oi from the solutions of S1.

  4. (4)

    If any element of set S1 dominate Oi, remove Oi from the list.

  5. (5)

    If Oi dominate any solution of the set S1, remove that solution from S1.

  6. (6)

    If Oi is non-dominated to set S1, then update set S1 = S1 U Oi.

  7. (7)

    If set S1 becomes empty, add the immediate solution at immediate solution to S1.

  8. (8)

    Print non-dominated set S1.

  1. C.

    Path Breakage Detection to Avoid the Packet Loss/Delay


Path breakage plays a significant role in the military communication environment, where the information may be lost or else there will be a delay in delivery. Path breakage seen in the MANET environment needs monitoring for avoiding the delayed delivery of information. In this work, it is performed by introducing the Go-Back-N ARQ method.

Go-Back-N ARQ is a particular instance of the Automatic Repeat reQuest (ARQ) protocol, in which the sending process continually sends a number of frames that are defined by a window size even with no receipt of an acknowledgment (ACK) packet obtained from the receiver. It is a certain case of the general sliding window protocol having the transmit window size of N and a receive window size of 1. It is capable of transmitting N frames to the peer before needing an ACK.

The receiver process maintains and keeps track of the sequence number of the next frame that it anticipates to receive, and then sends that number with each ACK it transmits. The receiver will leave out any frame, which does not possess the exact sequence number it is expecting (either a duplicate frame already acknowledged by it, or an out-of-order frame it is expecting to receive at a later point of time) and will then resend an ACK for the last correct in-order frame [1].  When the sender has sent every one of the frames in its window, it will find that all the frames till the first lost frame are outstanding and will look back to the sequence number of the last ACK it obtained from the receiver process and fills its window beginning with that frame and then continues the process over and again.

Go-Back-N ARQ uses a connection more efficiently than stop-and-wait ARQ, as here, dissimilar to waiting for an acknowledgment for every packet, the connection is still being used as the packets are getting sent. Otherwise said, the time, which would otherwise be spent in waiting, will be used for sending more packets. But this technique also causes the transmission of frames several number of times—when any frame was lost or corrupted, or the ACK that acknowledges them was lost or corrupted, then that frame and all of the next following frames in the window (even if they were received with no error) will get resent. In order to prevent this, selective repeat ARQ can be utilized.

There are certain things to consider while selecting a value for N:
  1. (1)

    The sender should not transmit too rapidly. N must be bounded by the receiver’s capability of processing the packets.

  2. (2)

    N should be smaller compared to the number of sequence numbers (in case they are numbered from zero to N) in order to verify the transmission in situations of any packet (any data or ACK packet) getting dropped.

  3. (3)

    With the bounds given in (1) and (2), select N to be the biggest number possible.

  1. D.

    Inference Avoidance using Neighborhood Information and the Path Breakage Information

While the data is transmitted, a node might receive two or more similar packets, leading to interference and redundancy. For a particular node in the network, just the neighbors who send or forward the packets (i.e., the active neighbors) will be interfering with it. Therefore, the other neighborhood nodes will not be affected by it. The interference index of a path is defined as the sum of interference index values of the component links. Hence, in a single channel Time Division Duplex (TDD) network in MANETs, any broadcast transmission adopts the principle that there should be just one node that can do the transmission among the neighbors of a receiver. In addition, every mobile device cannot simultaneously act as a sender and receiver.
  1. E.

    Minimizing Interference using the Node with Fewer Neighbors

With the intent of developing of a more interference-effective variant of GBR-CNR, the number of neighbors is considered in the receiving node. The concept here is that reducing the number of neighbors that surround the receiving node will reduce the chances that there shall be a receiver’s neighborhood node also functioning as a transmitting node in the same time slot just as the sender. Suppose the nodes labeled A are senders, nodes B are neighbors of A, and node D is the destination. Node A will select B2 as a next hop, rather than B1 as the numbers of neighbors of B2 are lesser compared to the neighbors of B1. Lesser neighbors can be considered as lesser chances of corrupted packets; therefore, in turn, an increase in network throughput can be attained.
  1. F.

    Minimizing Interference using the Node that is Less Used


Examining another variation of the approach mentioned above for achieving more interference-efficient routing making use of GBR-CNR, the number of communications the receiving node is already taking part in is taken into consideration. The algorithm is GBR-CNR with the less utilized (GBR-CNR-LU) nodes selected to be next hops. Consider that the nodes that are labeled A are senders, nodes B are the neighbors of A, and node D acts the destination. It is assumed that there exists two paths and node B1 is selected to be the next hop for node A1. Till now, when the protocol will be establishing the second path, node A2 will choose, for the next hop, node B2 in place of B1 as node B1 takes part in most communications compared to node B2 although node B1 is nearer to the destination D2 rather than node B2. Therefore, a node participating in lesser number of communication paths is less vulnerable to message degradation.

3 Experimental Results

This section studies about the performance of the proposed scheme, which is assessed through network simulation. Here, the comparison is performed between the new research called as the MORR-MANET and the already available technical work known as neighborhood-based interference avoidance (NIA), Greedy-based Backup Routing protocol (GBR), and GBR using Conservative Neighborhood Range (GBR-CNR). The performance measurement is done in terms of residual energy, number of nodes alive, and relative error. The setting values used for the network configuration when the experiments are carried out are given in Table 1. These values can be varied and optimized for different applications. In the present case of study, the values of the time intervals in Table 1 are chosen such as to minimize the experimental time duration for the purpose of observation.
Table 1

Setting values for experiments








Total number of nodes




Number of clusters




Time to recluster




Sample time for sensing




Time interval between two data transmission




Time to receive data of CH




Time to aggregate data at CH




Maximum time to keep radio on for sending

\({\text{T}}_{{{\text{Radioon}}_{\text{CM}} }}\)



Maximum time to keep radio on for sending

\(\Delta {\text{V}}_{\text{th}}\)



Voltage threshold for dead node

The performance measure values that are assessed for comparison and illustrating the improvement of the research methodology introduced is shown in Figs. 2, 3 and 4.
Fig. 2

Total remaining energy of the network

Fig. 3

Comparison of the number of live nodes as the round proceeds

Fig. 4

Reconstruction accuracy and energy consumption

Figure 2 illustrates the total amount of the remaining energy in the network. It is evident from the figure that the energy consumed by the proposed scheme is significantly smaller in comparison with the others, particularly in the first rounds. This is due to an effective cluster formation. The proposed technique is 13% better compared to the already available techniques.

Figure 3 shows the number of live sensor nodes with the round starting with 0.5 J/node at the beginning. It reveals that the time when the first node dies with the new MORR-MANET technique is about 7% higher in comparison with that of NIA. The time when every node dies with the proposed scheme is also significantly greater compared with them.

Figure 4 illustrates above shows the performance comparison of the energy consumption methods vs relative error as measured in the novel MORR-MANET compared against the existing NIA. Similar to the results, it reveals that the proposed MORR-MANET yields 13% least relative error for a certain energy expenditure compared to the other available techniques.

4 Conclusion

Military communication is a problem of importance remaining in highlight for various research works where the requirements of routing have to be achieved, targeting at the accomplishment of reliable and secured data communication. In this research work, a novel framework known as MORR-MANET is presented, which focuses over several factors such as QoS parameters, path breakage consideration along with the impacts of interference. Hence, the reliable and secured information passing is enabled in the military communication system. The system introduced assures rapid and secure communication of the information to the troop of soldiers present in the environment. Hence, reliable and secured communication can be achieved in military. The results from the experiments indicate that the research methodology proposed aids in yielding the better result in comparison with the existing research.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of ITSri Ramakrishna Engineering CollegeCoimbatoreIndia
  2. 2.Department of CSEBannari Amman Institute of TechnologySathyamangalamIndia

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