Open Access Journals

  • Trish GrovesEmail author


The American sociologist Robert K. Merton has argued that science is underpinned by four moral elements: communalism (where scientists give up intellectual property rights in exchange for recognition and esteem), universalism (where truth is evaluated in terms of universal criteria), disinterestedness (where scientists are rewarded for acting in ways that appear to be selfless) and organized scepticism (where all ideas must be tested and are subject to rigorous, structured, community scrutiny) [1]. To put it more simply, scientific advances involve sharing and peer review of research questions that have been objectively tested.


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    Merton RK. The normative structure of science. In: Merton RK, editor. The sociology of science: theoretical and empirical investigations. Chicago: University of Chicago Press; 1942. ISBN 0-226-52092-7.Google Scholar
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    Would Gandhi have been a Wikipedian? The Indian Express. 17 January 2012. Accessed 25 Apr 2015.
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    Muthu M, Subbiah A. Use made of open access journals by Indian researchers to publish their findings. Curr Sci. 2011;100:1297–306. Accessed 25 Apr 2015.Google Scholar
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    Delamothe T, Smith R. Open access publishing takes off. BMJ. 2004;328:1–3. Accessed 25 Apr 2015.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
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    Solomon DJ, Björk BC. Publication fees in open access publishing: sources of funding and factors influencing choice of journal. J Am Soc Information Sci Technol. Preprint. Accessed 25 Apr 2015.
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    Mark Ware Consulting. Submission fees—a tool in the transition to open access? Summary of report to knowledge exchange. 2010. Accessed on 25 Apr 2015.
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    Suber P. Ensuring open access for publicly funded research. BMJ. 2012;345:e5184. Accessed 25 Apr 2015.
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    Laakso M, Welling P, Bukvova H, Nyman L, Björk BC, Hedlund T. The development of open access journal publishing from 1993 to 2009. PLoS One. 2011;6:e20961. Accessed 25 Apr 2015.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
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    Mukherjee B, Mal BK. India’s efforts in open access publishing. Library philosophy and practice. 2012. Accessed 25 Apr 2015.
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    Lehman R, Loder E. Missing clinical trial data. BMJ. 2012;344:d8158. Accessed 25 Apr 2015.
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    The Royal Society. Science as an open enterprise: open data for open science. 2012. Accessed 25 Apr 2015.
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    Hrynaszkiewicz I, Norton ML, Vickers AJ, Altman DG. Preparing raw clinical data for publication: guidance for journal editors, authors, and peer reviewers. BMJ. 2010;340:c181. Accessed on 25 Apr 2015.
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    Laine C, Goodman SN, Griswold ME, Sox HC. Reproducible research: moving toward research the public can really trust. Ann Intern Med. 2007;146:450–3.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
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    Institute of Medicine. Sharing clinical trial data: maximizing benefits, minimizing risks.
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    Taichman DB, Backus J, Baethge C, Bauchner H, Leeuw PW, Drazen JM, et al. Sharing clinical trial data. BMJ. 2016;352:i255.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The National Medical Journal of India 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.BMJ and BMJ OpenLondonUK

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