Multi-stage Primary-Secondary Planning Considering Wholesale-Retail Markets
This chapter presents an approach for Integrated Distributed Generation and primary-secondary network Expansion Planning (IDGNEP) in the presence of wholesale and retail markets. The presented method uses a unified model to explore the impacts of retail market participants on the IDGNEP procedure. While the theory and practice of IDGNEP have advanced over the years, the Non-Utility Retail Market Participants (NURMPs) and Customers’ Active MicroGrids (CAMGs) introduce some other resources which can also be included in distribution network planning exercises. An electric distribution network may interchange energy with wholesale/retail market participants and downward CAMGs. When the volume of the energy interchanged between the network and NURMPs/CAMGs is comparable with the volume of electricity delivered to the end users, the IDGNEP results may considerably be different from the condition that no energy is interchanged. The presented model of IDGNEP is a Mixed Integer Non Linear Programming (MINLP) problem and the introduced algorithm decomposes the IDGNEP problem into multi sub-problems to achieve an optimal expansion planning of a network, in which the investment and operational costs are minimized, while the reliability of the network is maximized. Demand Side Management (DSM) programs, Distribution Automation (DA) investment alternatives and NURMP and CAMGs contribution scenarios which may significantly change the network’s resources are considered in IDGNEP formulation. The algorithm was successfully tested for an urban distribution network.
KeywordsDistribution network expansion planning Genetic algorithm (GA) Optimization Active microgrids
- 1.S. Chowdhury, S.P. Chowdhury, P. Crossley, Microgrids and active distribution networks, in IET Renewable Energy Series (2009)Google Scholar