Rare Indications for Cytoreductive Surgery and Hyperthermic Intraperitoneal Chemotherapy

  • Aditi Bhatt
  • Ramakrishnan Ayloor Seshadri


Cytoreductive surgery (CRS) and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) are an effective therapeutic modality for treating selected patients with peritoneal metastases (PM). There are uncommon situations in which primary peritoneal tumors which are rare give rise to PM or when PM are secondary to rare tumors or when isolated PM arise from common primary intra-abdominal and extra-abdominal tumors. CRS and HIPEC has the potential to provide therapeutic benefit to these patients that are conventionally treated with systemic chemotherapy, essentially a palliative approach. The natural history of many of these diseases is not known, and the evidence favoring the use of such procedures is limited. The collaborative efforts of surgeons treating peritoneal surface malignancies in pooling data and analyzing outcomes have generated some evidence to guide treatment decisions. In some situations like patients with mucinous tumors, intra-abdominal primary sites with limited peritoneal cancer spread, in patients who are in good general health, have tumors responsive to systemic therapy and the risk of morbidity is low, CRS and HIPEC can be used in the absence of level I/II evidence based on retrospective data and the recommendation of experts in the field. Such treatment should be offered in specialized centers and decisions taken in multidisciplinary meetings. It is ideal to enroll such patients in clinical trial or follow an institutional protocol or refer such patients to a specialized center. The respective roles of CRS and HIPEC should be considered separately for each tumor site and histology; where the benefit of intraperitoneal chemotherapy is less clear, the morbidity versus benefit should be considered. There is rapid progress in systemic therapies as well, with new and more effective therapies available, which should be used where indicated. New therapeutic modalities like pressurized intraperitoneal chemotherapy (PIPAC) can be used as a palliative option in combination with systemic chemotherapy where the therapeutic benefit of CRS and HIPEC is uncertain and the risk of morbidity is high.


  1. 1.
    Bryan ML, Fitzgerald NC, Levine EA, Shen P, Stewart JH, Votanopoulos KI. Cytoreductive surgery with hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy in sarcomatosis from gastrointestinal stromal tumor. Am Surg. 2014;80(9):890–5.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Al-Badawi IA, Abu-Zaid A, Azzam A, AlOmar O, AlHusaini H, Amin T. Cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy for management of recurrent/relapsed ovarian granulosa cell tumor: a single-center experience. J Obstet Gynaecol Res. 2014;40(9):2066–75.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Hayes-Jordan A, Green HL, Lin H, Owusu-Agyemang P. Complete cytoreduction and HIPEC improves survival in desmoplastic small round cell tumor. Ann Surg Oncol. 2014;21(1):220–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Salti G, Ailabouni L, Undevia S. Cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy for the treatment of peritoneal sarcomatosis. Ann Surg Oncol. 2012;19(5):1410–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    van Oudheusden TR, Lemmens VE, Braam HJ. Peritoneal metastases from small bowel cancer: results of cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy in The Netherlands. Surgery. 2015;157(6):1023–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Goéré D, Passot G, Gelli M, Levine EA, Bartlett DL, Sugarbaker PH, Glehen O, On behalf the PSOGI; BIG-RENAPE Working Groups. Complete cytoreductive surgery plus HIPEC for peritoneal metastases from unusual cancer sites of origin: results from a worldwide analysis issue of the Peritoneal Surface Oncology Group International (PSOGI). Int J Hyperth. 2017;33(5):520–7. Scholar
  7. 7.
    Gerald WL, Miller HK, Battifora H, Miettinen M, Silva EG, Rosai J. Intra-abdominal desmoplastic small round-cell tumor. Report of 19 cases of a distinctive type of high-grade polyphenotypic malignancy affecting young individuals. Am J Surg Pathol. 1991;15:499–513.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Ordonez NG, Zirkin R. Malignant small-cell epithelial tumor of the peritoneum coexpressing mesenchymal-type intermediate filaments. Am J Surg Pathol. 1989;13:413–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Furman J, Murphy WM, Wajsman Z, et al. Urogenital involvement by desmoplastic small round-cell tumor. J Urol. 1997;158:1506–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Kawano N, Inayama Y, Nagashima Y, et al. Desmoplastic small round-cell tumor of the paratesticular region: report of an adult case with demonstration of EWS and WT1 gene fusion using paraffin-embedded tissue. Mod Pathol. 1999;12:729–34.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Ordonez NG, el-Naggar AK, Ro JY, et al. Intraabdominal desmoplastic small cell tumor: a light microscopic, immunocytochemical, ultrastructural, and flow cytometric study. Hum Pathol. 1993;24:850–65.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Parkash V, Gerald WL, Parma A, et al. Desmoplastic small round cell tumor of the pleura. Am J Surg Pathol. 1995;19:659–65.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Prat J, Matias-Guiu X, Algaba F. Desmoplastic small round-cell tumor. Am J Surg Pathol. 1992;16:306–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Roganovich J, Bisogno G, Cecchetto G, et al. Paratesticular desmoplastic small round cell tumor: case report and review of the literature. J Surg Oncol. 1999;71:269–72.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Slomovitz BM, Girotra M, Aledo A, et al. Desmoplastic small round cell tumor with primary ovarian involvement: case report and review. Gynecol Oncol. 2000;79:124–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Tison V, Cerasoli S, Morigi F, et al. Intracranial desmoplastic small-cell tumor: report of a case. Am J Surg Pathol. 1996;20:112–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Young RH, Eichhorn JH, Dickersin GR, et al. Ovarian involvement by the intraabdominal desmoplastic small round cell tumor with divergent differentiation: a report of three cases. Hum Pathol. 1992;23:454–64.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Wolf AN, Ladanyi M, Paull G, et al. The expanding clinical spectrum of desmoplastic small round-cell tumor: a report of two cases with molecular confirmation. Hum Pathol. 1999;30:430–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Ariza-Prota MA, Pando-Sandoval A, Fole-Vázquez D, Casan P. Desmoplastic small round cell tumor of the lung: a case report and literature review. Respir Med Case Rep. 2015;16:112–6. Scholar
  20. 20.
    Neff RT, Kellert B, Isley M, Backes F. Management of a rapidly enlarging new adnexal mass: a rare case of desmoplastic small round cell tumor of the ovary arising in pregnancy. Gynecol Oncol Rep. 2016;17:23–5. Scholar
  21. 21.
    Lettieri CK, Garcia-Filion P, Hingorani P. Incidence and outcomes of desmoplastic small round cell tumor: results from the surveillance, epidemiology, and end results database. J Cancer Epidemiol. 2014;2014:680126. Scholar
  22. 22.
    Chan AS, MacNeill S, Thorner P, Squire J, Zielenska M. Variant EWS-WT1 chimeric product in the desmoplastic small round cell tumor. Pediatr Dev Pathol. 1999;2:188–92.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Rodriguez E, Sreekantaiah C, Gerald W, Reuter VE, Motzer RJ, Chaganti RS. A recurring translocation, t(11;22)(p13;q11.2), characterizes intra-abdominal desmoplastic small round-cell tumors. Cancer Genet Cytogenet. 1993;69:17–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Ladanyi M, Gerald W. Fusion of the EWS and WT1 genes in the desmoplastic small round cell tumor. Cancer Res. 1994;54:2837–40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Sawyer JR, Tryka AF, Lewis JM. A novel reciprocal chromosome translocation t(11;22)(p13;q12) in an intraabdominal desmoplastic small round-cell tumor. Am J Surg Pathol. 1992;16:411–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Delattre O, Zucman J, Plougastel B, Desmaze C, Melot T, et al. Gene fusion with an ETS DNA-binding domain caused by chromosome translocation in human tumours. Nature. 1992;359:162–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Sorensen PH, Lessnick SL, Lopez-Terrada D, Liu XF, Triche TJ, et al. A second Ewing’s sarcoma translocation, t(21;22), fuses the EWS gene to another ETS-family transcription factor, ERG. Nat Genet. 1994;6:146–51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Jeon IS, Davis JN, Braun BS, Sublett JE, Roussel MF, et al. A variant Ewing’s sarcoma translocation (7;22) fuses the EWS gene to the ETS gene ETV1. Oncogene. 1995;10:1229–34.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Huff V. Wilms tumor genetics. Am J Med Genet. 1998;79:260–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Maiti S, Alam R, Amos CI, Huff V. Frequent association of beta-catenin and WT1 mutations in Wilms tumors. Cancer Res. 2000;60:6288–92.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Galii N, Davis RJ, Fredericks WJ, Mukhopadhyay S, Rauscher FJ III, Emanuel BJ, Rovera G, Barr FG. Fusion of a fork head domain gene to PAX3 in the solid tumour alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma. Nat Genet. 1993;5:230–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Shapiro D, Sublett JE, Li B, Downing JR, Naeve CW. Fusion of PAX3 to a member of the forkhead family of transcription factors in human alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma. Cancer Res. 1993;53(21):5108–12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Cleary ML. Oncogenic conversion of transcription factors by chromosomal translocations. Cell. 1991;66(4):619–2.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Forster A, Thompson S, Lampert F, Kaneko Y, Slater R, Kroes WG, van derm E, Ludwig WD, Karpas A, Pocock C, Cotter F, Rabbitts TH. Acute leukemias of different lineages have similar MLL gene fusions encoding related chimeric proteins resulting from chromosomal translocation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1993;90:8538–42.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Hunger SP, Thachuk DC, Amylon MD, Unk MP, Carroll AJ, Welborn JL, Willman CL, Cleary ML. HRX involvement in de novo and secondary leukemias with diverse chromosome iiq23 abnormalities. Blood. 1993;81:3197–203.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Angarita FA, Hassan S, Cannell AJ, Dickson BC, Gladdy RA, Swallow CJ, Gupta A, Blackstein ME, McCart JA. Clinical features and outcomes of 20 patients with abdominopelvic desmoplastic small round cell tumor. Eur J Surg Oncol. 2017;43(2):423–31. Scholar
  37. 37.
    Chang F. Desmoplastic small round cell tumors: cytologic, histologic, and immunohistochemical features. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2006;130(5):728–32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Thandassery RB, Elbedawi M, El-Malik H, John AK, Al-Bozom IA, Al Kaabi SR. Intra-abdominal desmoplastic small round cell tumor. Ann Gastroenterol. 2013;27(3):287–8.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Quaglia MPL, Brennan MF. The clinical approach to desmoplastic small round cell tumor. Surg Oncol. 2000;9(2):77–81.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Li G, Wang H, Gao Y, Cui X, Zhang G. Primary abdominopelvic desmoplastic small round cell tumor: CT and correlated clinicopathologic features. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2014;18(18):2670–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Hayes-Jordan A, Green H, Fitzgerald N, Xiao L, et al. Novel treatment for desmoplastic small round cell tumor: hyperthermic intraperitoneal perfusion. J Pediatr Surg. 2010;45(5):1000–6. Scholar
  42. 42.
    Kushner BH, LaQuaglia MP, Wollner N, et al. Desmoplastic small round-cell tumor: prolonged progression-free survival with aggressive multimodality therapy. J Clin Oncol. 1996;14:1526–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Lal DR, Su WT, Wolden SL, et al. Results of multimodal treatment for desmoplastic small round cell tumors. J Pediatr Surg. 2005;40:251–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Msika S, Gruden E, Sarnacki S, Orbach D, Philippe-Chomette P, Castel B, et al. Cytoreductive surgery associated to hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemoperfusion for desmoplastic round small cell tumor with peritoneal carcinomatosis in young patients. J Pediatr Surg. 2010;45:1617–21. Scholar
  45. 45.
    Honoré C, Amroun K, Vilcot L, Mir O, Domont J, Terrier P, et al. Abdominal desmoplastic small round cell tumor: multimodal treatment combining chemotherapy, surgery, and radiotherapy is the best option. Ann Surg Oncol. 2015;22:1073–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Honoré C, Atallah V, Mir O, et al. Abdominal desmoplastic small round cell tumor without extraperitoneal metastases: is there a benefit for HIPEC after macroscopically complete cytoreductive surgery? PLoS One. 2017;12(2):e0171639. Scholar
  47. 47.
    da Silva Pechutti DC, de Arruda Lourençao PL, Takegawa BK, Oliveira CC, Neto A. Requirement for novel surgical and clinical protocols for the treatment of desmoplastic small round cell tumor: a report of two cases and a review of the literature. Oncol Lett. 2015;10(2):1103–8. Scholar
  48. 48.
    Shimazaki J, Motohashi G, Nishida K, Tabuchi T, Ubukata H, Tabuchi T. Removal of an intra-abdominal desmoplastic small round cell tumor by repetitive debulking surgery: a case report and literature review. Oncol Lett. 2014;7(5):1464–8. Scholar
  49. 49.
    Koniari K, Mahera H, Nikolaou M, et al. Intraabdominal desmoplastic small round cell tumor: report of a case and literature review. Int J Surg Case Rep. 2011;2(8):293–6. Scholar
  50. 50.
    Chang C-C, Hsu J-T, Tseng J-H, Hwang T-L, Chen H-M, Jan Y-Y. Combined resection and multi-agent adjuvant chemotherapy for desmoplastic small round cell tumor arising in the abdominal cavity: report of a case. World J Gastroenterol. 2006;12(5):800–3. Scholar
  51. 51.
    Watanabe T, Miyamoto S, Kitagori K, et al. A case of long-term survival of metastatic desmoplastic small round cell tumor treated with multimodal therapy. Oncol Lett. 2012;3(1):30–4. Scholar
  52. 52.
    Fan HS, I’Ons B, McConnell R, Kumar V, Alzahrani S, Morris DL. Peritonectomy and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy as treatment for desmoplastic small round cell tumour. Int J Surg Case Rep. 2015;7C:85–8. Scholar
  53. 53.
    Swerdlow M. Mesothelioma of the pelvic peritoneum resembling papillary cystadenocarcinoma of the ovary; case report. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1959;77(1):197–200.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Bloss JD, Liao SY, Buller RE, Manetta A, Berman ML, McMeekin S, et al. Extraovarian peritoneal serous papillary carcinoma: a case-control retrospective comparison to papillary adenocarcinoma of the ovary. Gynecol Oncol. 1993;50(3):347–51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Goodman MT, Shvetsov YB. Rapidly increasing incidence of papillary serous carcinoma of the peritoneum in the United States: fact or artifact? Int J Cancer. 2009;124(9):2231–5.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Goodman MT, Shvetsov YB. Incidence of ovarian, peritoneal, and fallopian tube carcinomas in the United States, 1995–2004. Cancer Epidemiol Biomark Prev. 2009;18(1):132–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Dubeau L. The cell of origin of ovarian epithelial tumours. Lancet Oncol. 2008;9(12):1191–7.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Altaras MM, Aviram R, Cohen I, Cordoba M, Weiss E, Beyth Y. Primary peritoneal papillary serous adenocarcinoma: clinical and management aspects. Gynecol Oncol. 1991;40:230–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    August CZ, Murad TM, Newton M. Multiple focal extraovarian serous carcinoma. Int J Gynecol Pathol. 1985;4:11–23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Dalrymple JC, Bannatyne P, Russell P, et al. Extraovarian peritoneal serous papillary carcinoma. Cancer. 1989;64:110–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Fromm G-L, Gershenson DM, Silva EG. Papillary serous carcinoma of the peritoneum. Obstet Gynecol. 1990;75:89–95.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Finch A, Beiner M, Lubinski J, et al. Salpingo-oophorectomy and the risk of ovarian, fallopian tube, and peritoneal cancers in women with a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation. JAMA. 2006;296:185–92.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Levine DA, Argenta PA, Yee CJ, et al. Fallopian tube and primary peritoneal carcinomas associated with BRCA mutations. J Clin Oncol. 2003;21:4222–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Olivier RI, van Beurden M, Lubsen MA, Rookus MA, Mooij TM, van de Vijver MJ, van’t Veer LJ. Clinical outcome of prophylactic oophorectomy in BRCA1/BRCA2 mutation carriers and events during follow-up. Br J Cancer. 2004;90:1492–7.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Cheng W, Liu J, Yoshida H, Rosen D, Naora H. Lineage infidelity of epithelial ovarian cancers is controlled by HOX genes that specify regional identity in the reproductive tract. Nat Med. 2005;11:531–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Churg A, Cagle PT, Roggli VL. Tumors of the serosal membranes. Silver Spring: ARP; 2006.Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Liu Q, Lin JX, Shi QL, Wu B, Ma HH, Sun GQ. Primary peritoneal serous papillary carcinoma: a clinical and pathological study. Pathol Oncol Res. 2011;17:713–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Ordonez NG. Value of PAX8, PAX2, claudin-4, and h-caldesmon immunostaining in distinguishing peritoneal epithelioid mesotheliomas from serous carcinomas. Mod Pathol. 2013;26:553–62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Ifthikar AM, Rathod PS, Shruthi S, et al. Primary peritoneal carcinoma: regional cancer institute experience. Indian J Surg Oncol. 2014;5(3):232–6. Scholar
  70. 70.
    Grant DJ, Moorman PG, Akushevich L, et al. Primary peritoneal and ovarian cancers: an epidemiological comparative analysis. Cancer Causes Control. 2010;21:991. Scholar
  71. 71.
    Eltabbakh GH, Piver MS, Natarajan N, Mettlin CJ. Epidemiologic differences between women with extraovarian primary peritoneal carcinoma and women with epithelial ovarian cancer. Obstet Gynecol. 1998;91(2):254–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Halperin R, Zehavi S, Langer R, Hadas E, Bukovsky I, Schneider D. Primary peritoneal serous papillary carcinoma: a new epidemiologic trend? A matched-case comparison with ovarian serous papillary cancer. Int J Gynecol Cancer. 2001;11(5):403–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Pentheroudakis G, Pavlidis N. Serous papillary peritoneal carcinoma: unknown primary tumour, ovarian cancer counterpart or a distinct entity? A systematic review. Crit Rev Oncol Hematol. 2010;75:27–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Kowalski LD, Kanbour AI, Price FV, et al. A case-matched molecular comparison of extraovarian versus primary ovarian adenocarcinoma. Cancer. 1997;79:1587–94.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Chen LM, Yamada SD, Fu YS, Baldwin RL, Karlan BY. Molecular similarities between primary peritoneal and primary ovarian carcinomas. Int J Gynecol Cancer. 2003;13:749–55.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Tsao SW, Mok CH, Knapp RC, et al. Molecular genetic evidence of a unifocal origin for human serous ovarian carcinomas. Gynecol Oncol. 1993;48:5–10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Muto MG, Welch WR, Mok SC, et al. Evidence for a multifocal origin of papillary serous carcinoma of the peritoneum. Cancer Res. 1995;55:490–2.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Schorge JO, Muto MG, Welch WR, et al. Molecular evidence for multifocal papillary serous carcinoma of the peritoneum in patients with germline BRCA1 mutations. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1998;90:841–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Bandera CA, Muto MG, Welch WR, Berkowitz RS, Mok SC. Genetic imbalance on chromosome 17 in papillary serous carcinoma of the peritoneum. Oncogene. 1998;16:3455–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Hou T, Liang D, He J, Chen X, Zhang Y. Primary peritoneal serous carcinoma: a clinicopathological and immunohistochemical study of six cases. Int J Clin Exp Pathol. 2012;5(8):762–9.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Barnetson RJ, Burnett RA, Downie I, Harper CM, Roberts F. Immunohistochemical analysis of peritoneal mesothelioma and primary and secondary serous carcinoma of the peritoneum: antibodies to estrogen and progesterone receptors are useful. Am J Clin Pathol. 2006;125:67–76.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Schorge JO, Muto MG, Lee SJ, et al. BRCA1-related papillary serous carcinoma of the peritoneum has a unique molecular pathogenesis. Cancer Res. 2000;60:1361–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Truong LD, Maccato ML, Awalt H, Cagle PT, Schwartz MR, Kaplan AL. Serous surface carcinoma of the peritoneum: a clinicopathologic study of 22 cases. Hum Pathol. 1990;21:99–110.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Iavazzo C, Vorgias G, Katsoulis M, Kalinoglou N, Dertimas V, Akrivos T. Primary peritoneal serous papillary carcinoma: clinical and laboratory characteristics. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2008;278:53–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Kennedy AW, Markman M, Webster KD, et al. Experience with platinum-paclitaxel chemotherapy in the initial management of papillary serous carcinoma of the peritoneum. Gynecol Oncol. 1998;72(1):288–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Bloss JD, Brady MF, Liao SY, Rocereto T, Partridge EE, Clarke-Pearson DL. Extraovarian peritoneal serous papillary carcinoma: a phase II trial of cisplatin and cyclophosphamide with comparison to a cohort with papillary serous ovarian carcinoma-a Gynecologic Oncology Group Study. Gynecol Oncol. 2003;89:148–54.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Ransom DT, Shreyaskumar RP, Keeney GL, Malkasian GD, Edmonson JH. Papillary serous carcinoma of the peritoneum. A review of 33 cases treated with platin-based chemotherapy. Cancer. 1990;66:1091–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Zhou J, Iwasa Y, Konishi I, et al. Papillary serous carcinoma of the peritoneum in women. A clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study. Cancer. 1995;76:429–36.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Liapis A, Condi-Paphiti A, Pyrgiotis E, Zourlas PA. Ovarian surface serous papillary carcinomas: a clinicopathologic study. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol. 1996;17:79–82.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Taus P, Petru E, Gucer F, Pickel H, Lahousen M. Primary serous papillary carcinoma of the peritoneum: a report of 18 patients. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol. 1997;18:171–2.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Piver MS, Eltabakkh GH, Hempling R, Recio F, Blumenson L. Two sequential studies for primary peritoneal carcinoma: induction with weekly cisplatin followed by either cisplatin doxorubicin-cyclophosphamide or paclitaxel-cisplatin. Gynecol Oncol. 1997;67:141–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Kennedy AW, Markman M, Webster K, et al. Experience with platinumpaclitaxel chemotherapy in the initial management of papillary serous carcinoma of the peritoneum. Gynecol Oncol. 1998;71:288–90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Morita H, Aoki J, Taketomi A, Sato N, Endo K. Serous surface papillary carcinoma of the peritoneum: clinical, radiologic, and pathologic findings in 11 patients. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2004;183:923–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Pentheroudakis G, Briasoulis E, Karavasilis V, et al. Chemotherapy for patients with two favourable subsets of unknown primary carcinoma: active, but how effective? Acta Oncol. 2005;44:155–60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Roh SY, Hong SH, Ko YH, Kim TH, Lee MA, Shim BY, Byun JH, Woo IS, Kang JH, Hong YS, Lee KS. Clinical characteristics of primary peritoneal carcinoma. Cancer Res Treat. 2007;39:65–8.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Choi CH, Kim TJ, Kim WY, et al. Papillary serous carcinoma in ovaries of normal size: a clinicopathologic study of 20 cases and comparison with extraovarian peritoneal papillary serous carcinoma. Gynecol Oncol. 2007;105:762–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Zhang C, Li XP, Cui H, Shen D, Wei L. Advanced primary peritoneal carcinoma: clinicopathologic and prognostic factor analyses. J Zhejiang Univ Sci B. 2008;9:435–40.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Nam JH, Kim YM, Jung MH, et al. Primary peritoneal carcinoma: experience with cyto reductive surgery and combination chemotherapy. Int J Gynecol Cancer. 2006;16(1):23–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Killackey MA, Davis AR. Papillary serous carcinoma of the peritoneal surface: matched-case comparison with papillary serous ovarian carcinoma. Gynecol Oncol. 1993;51(2):171–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Fowler JM, Nieberg RK, Schooler TA, Berek JS. Peritoneal adenocarcinoma serous of Mullerian type: a subgroup of women presenting with peritoneal carcinomatosis. Int J Gynecol Cancer. 1994;4:43–51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Baruch GB, Sivan E, Moran O, Rizel S, Menczer J, Seidman DS. Primary peritoneal serous papillary carcinoma: a study of 25 cases and comparison with stage III-IV ovarian papillary serous carcinoma. Gynecol Oncol. 1996;60:393–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Piura B, Meirovitz M, Bartfeld M, Yanai-Inbar I, Cohen Y. Peritoneal papillary serous carcinoma: study of 15 cases and comparison with stage III–IV ovarian papillary serous carcinoma. J Surg Oncol. 1998;68:173–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Schorge JO, Miller YB, Qi LG, et al. Genetic alterations of the WT1 gene in papillary serous carcinoma of the peritoneum. Gynecol Oncol. 2000;76:369–72.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Eisenhauer EL, Sonoda Y, Levine DA, Abu-Rustum NR, Gemignani ML, Sabbatini PJ, Barakat RR, Chi DS. Platinum resistance and impaired survival in patients with advanced primary peritoneal carcinoma: matched-case comparison with patients with epithelial ovarian carcinoma. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2008;198(213):e1–7.Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    Gershenson DM, Bodurka DC, Lu KH, et al. Impact of age and primary disease site on outcome in women with low-grade serous carcinoma of the ovary or peritoneum: results of a large single-institution registry of a rare tumor. J Clin Oncol. 2015;33(24):2675–82. Scholar
  106. 106.
    Armstrong DK, Bundy B, Wenzel L, Huang HQ, Baergen R, Lele S, Copeland LJ, Walker JL, Burger RA, Gynecologic Oncology Group. Intraperitoneal cisplatin and paclitaxel in ovarian cancer. N Engl J Med. 2006;354(1):34–43.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Look M, Chang D, Sugarbaker PH. Long-term results of cytoreductive surgery for advanced and recurrent epithelial ovarian cancers and papillary serous carcinoma of the peritoneum. Int J Gynecol Cancer. 2004;14(1):35–41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Bakrin N, Gilly FN, Baratti D, Bereder JM, Quenet F, Lorimier G, Mohamed F, Elias D, Glehen O, Association Française de Chirurgie. Primary peritoneal serous carcinoma treated by cytoreductive surgery combined with hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy. A multi-institutional study of 36 patients. Eur J Surg Oncol. 2013;39(7):742–7. Scholar
  109. 109.
    Yuan J, He L, Han B, Li Y. Long-term survival of high-grade primary peritoneal papillary serous adenocarcinoma: a case report and literature review. World J Surg Oncol. 2017;15:76. Scholar
  110. 110.
    Yun W-S, Bae J-M. Primary peritoneal serous carcinoma, an extremely rare malignancy: a case report and review of the literature. Oncol Lett. 2016;11(6):4063–5. Scholar
  111. 111.
    Levy AD, Arnáiz J, Shaw JC, Sobin LH. From the archives of the AFIP: primary peritoneal tumors: imaging features with pathologic correlation. Radiographics. 2008;28(2):583–607; quiz 621-2. Scholar
  112. 112.
    Biscotti CV, Hart WR. Peritoneal serous micro-papillomatosis of low malignant potential (serous borderline tumors of the peritoneum): a clinico-pathologic study of 17 cases. Am J Surg Pathol. 1992;16:467–75.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Mok SC, Schorge JO, Welch WR, Hendrickson MR, Kempson RL. Peritoneal tumours. In: Tavassoli FA, Devilee P, editors. Pathology and genetics of tumours of the breast and female genital organs. Lyon: IARC; 2003. p. 197–202.Google Scholar
  114. 114.
    Taubert H, Wissner S, Haskins A. Leiomyomatosis peritonealis disseminata: an unusual complication of genital leiomyomata. Obstet Gynecol. 1965;25:561–74.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Lausen I, Jensen O, Andersen E, Lindahl F. Disseminated peritoneal leiomyomatosis with malignant change, in a male. Vichows Arch A Pathol Anat Histopathol. 1990;417:173–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Yamaguchi T, Imamura Y, Yamamoto T, Fukuda M. Leiomyomatosis peritonealis disseminata with malignant change in a man. Pathol Int. 2003;53:179–85.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Bourgain RH, Paubert-Braquet M, Shen S, et al. An optoelectronic registration method as applied to PAF-mediated hydrogen peroxide induced arterial thrombosis. J Lipid Mediat Cell Signal. 1994;9:79–88.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Tavassoli FA, Norris HJ. Peritoneal leiomyomatosis (leiomyomatosis peritonealis disseminata): a clinicopathologic study of 20 cases with ultrastructural observations. Int J Gynecol Pathol. 1982;1:59–74.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Kratz KG, Santillan A, Gu M, Bristow RE. Radical surgical cytoreduction of progressive leiomyomatosis peritonealis disseminata: a case report. J Reprod Med. 2009;54:447–50.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Lauchlan S. The secondary Mullerian system. Obstet Gynecol Surv. 1972;27:133–46.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Clement P, Young R, Scully R. The peritoneum. In: Sternberg S, editor. Diagnostic surgical pathology. 3rd ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 1999. p. 2427–31.Google Scholar
  122. 122.
    Fredericks S, Russel P, Cooper M, et al. Smooth muscle in the female pelvic peritoneum: a clinicopathological analysis of 31 women. Pathology. 2005;37(1):14–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Paal E, Miettinen M. Retroperitoneal leiomyomas: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 56 cases with a comparison to retroperitoneal leiomyosarcomas. Am J Surg Pathol. 2001;25(11):1355–63.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Herr J, Platz C, Heidger P, et al. Smooth muscle within ovarian decidual nodules: a link to leiomyomatosis peritonealis disseminata? Obstet Gynecol. 1979;53:451–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Goldberg M, Hurt W, Frable W. Leiomyomatosis peritonealis disseminate. Report of a case and review of the literature. Obstet Gynecol. 1977;49(Suppl):46–52.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Due W, Pickartz H. Immunohistologic detection of estrogen and progesterone receptors in disseminated peritoneal leiomyomatosis. Int J Gynecol Pathol. 1989;8:46–53.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Nogales F, Matilla A, Carrascal E. Leiomyomatosis peritonealis disseminata. An ultrastructural study. Am J Clin Pathol. 1978;69:452–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Sobiczewski P, Bidzinski M, Radziszewski J, et al. Disseminated peritoneal leiomyomatosis—case report and literature review. Ginekol Pol. 2004;75(3):215–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Bekkers R, Willemsen W, Schijf C, et al. Leiomyomatosis peritonealis disseminate: does malignant transformation occur? A literature review. Gynecol Oncol. 1999;75(1):158–63.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Minassian S, Frangipane W, Polin J, et al. Leiomyomatosis peritonealis disseminata. A case report and literature review. J Reprod Med. 1986;31(10):997–1000.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Herrero J, Kamali P, Kirschbaum M. Leiomyomatosis peritonealis disseminata associated with endometriosis: a case report and literature review. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 1998;76(2):189–91.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Heinig J, Neff A, Cirkel U, et al. Recurrent leiomyomatosis peritonealis disseminata after hysterectomy and bilateral salpingooophorectomy during combined hormone replacement therapy. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2003;111(2):216–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Bristow R, Montz F. Leiomyomatosis peritonealis disseminata and ovarian Brenner tumor associated with tamoxifen use. Int J Gynecol Cancer. 2001;11(4):312–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Drake A, Dhundee J, Buckley C, et al. Disseminated leiomyomatosis peritonealis in association with oestrogen secreting ovarian fibrothecoma. BJOG. 2001;108(6):661–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Deering S, Miller B, Kopelman J, et al. Recurrent leiomyomatosis peritonealis disseminata exacerbated by in vitro fertilization. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2000;182(3):725–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Kaplan C, Benirschke K, Johnson K. Leiomyomatosis peritonealis disseminata with endometrium. Obstet Gynecol. 1980;55:119–22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Zotalis G, Nayar R, Hicks D. Leiomyomatosis peritonealis disseminata, endometriosis, and multicystic mesothelioma: an unusual association. Int J Gynecol Pathol. 1998;17:178–82.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Danikas D, Vasilios T, Goudas C, et al. Luteinizing hormone receptor expression in leiomyomatosis peritonealis disseminate. Obstet Gynecol. 2000;95:1009–11.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Quade BJ, McLachlin CM, Soto-Wright V, Zuckerman J, Mutter GL, Morton CC. Disseminated peritoneal leiomyomatosis. Clonality analysis by X chromosome inactivation and cytogenetics of a clinically benign smooth muscle proliferation. Am J Pathol. 1997;150:2153–66.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Miyake T, Enomoto T, Ueda Y, et al. A case of disseminated peritoneal leiomyomatosis developing aft er laparoscope-assisted myomectomy. Gynecol Obstet Investig. 2009;67:96–102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Papadatos D, Taourel P, Bret PM. CT of leiomyomatosis peritonealis disseminata mimicking peritoneal carcinomatosis. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1996;167:475–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Abulafia O, Angel C, Sherer DM, Fultz PJ, Bonfiglio TA, DuBeshter B. Computed tomography of leiomyomatosis peritonealis disseminata with malignant transformation. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1993;169:52–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Fulcher AS, Szucs RA. Leiomyomatosis peritonealis disseminata complicated by sarcomatous transformation and ovarian torsion: presentation of two cases and review of the literature. Abdom Imaging. 1998;23:640–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Mueller F, Kuehn K, Neudeck H, Nina S, Uwe U, et al. Disseminated peritoneal leiomyomatosis with endometriosis. J Minim Invasive Gynecol. 2012;19(3):380–2.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Hamrick-Tumer JE, Chiechi MV, Abbitt PL, et al. Neoplastic and inflammatory processes of the peritoneum, omentum and mesentery: diagnosis with CT. Radiographics. 1992;12(6):1051–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Tourlakis D, Tas B, Van Herendael B. Disseminated peritoneal leiomyomatosis. Gynecol Surg. 2010;7(3):241–3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Valente PT, Fine BA, Parra C, Schroeder B. Gastric stromal cell tumor with peritoneal nodules in pregnancy: tumor spread or rare variant of diffuse leiomyomatosis. Gynecol Oncol. 1996;63:392–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Tjels H, Pettersson B, Nordlinder H. Leiomyomatosis peritonealis disseminata. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 1986;65:373–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Lottge M, Canzler E, Spormann H. Demonstration zur leiomyomatosis peritonealis disseminata. Zent bl Gynaecol. 1987;109:459–62.Google Scholar
  150. 150.
    Aterman K, Fraser GM, Leah RH. Disseminated peritoneal leiomyomatosis. Virchows Arch A Path Anat Histolpathol. 1977;374:13–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Buettner A, Bassler R, Theele CH. Pregnancy associated ectopic decidua (deciduosis) of the greater omentum. Pathol Res Pract. 1993;189:352–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Takeda T, Masuhara K, Kamiura S. Successful management of a leiomyomatosis peritonealis disseminata with an aromatase inhibitor. Obstet Gynecol. 2008;112:491–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Ramos A, Fader AN, Roche KL. Surgical cytoreduction for disseminated benign disease after open power uterine morcellation. Obstet Gynecol. 2015;125(1):99–102. Scholar
  154. 154.
    Rubin SC, Wheeler JE, Mikuta JJ. Malignant leiomyomatosis peritonealis disseminata. Obstet Gynecol. 1986;68:126–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Akkersdijk GJ, Flu PK, Giard RW, van Lent M, Wallen-burg HD. Malignant leiomyomatosis peritonealis disseminata. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1990;163:591–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    Raspagliesi F, Quattrone P, Grosso G, Cobellis L, Di Re E. Malignant degeneration in leiomyomatosis peritonealis disseminata. Gynecol Oncol. 1996;61(2):272–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    Baratti D, Pennacchioli E, Kusamura S, et al. Peritoneal sarcomatosis: is there a subset of patients who may benefit from cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy? Ann Surg Oncol. 2010;17:3220–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Soufi M, Mdaghri J, Benamr S, et al. Giant liposarcoma of the omentum mimicking an ovarian tumor. A case report. Indian J Surg. 2012;74(5):425–7. Scholar
  159. 159.
    Sondak VK, Economou JS, Eilber FR. Soft tissue sarcomas of the extremity and retroperitoneum: advances in management. Adv Surg. 1991;24P:333–59.Google Scholar
  160. 160.
    Van Dam PA, Lowe PG, McKenzie-Gray B, Shepherd JH. Retroperitoneal soft tissue sarcomas. Obstet Gynecol Surv. 1990;45:670–82.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    Lawrence W Jr, Neifeld JP. Soft tissue sarcomas. Curr Probl Surg. 1989;26:753–827.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    Storm FK, Sondak VK, Economou JS. Sarcomas of the retroperitoneum. In: Eilber FC, et al., editors. Soft tissue sarcomas. New York: Grune & Stratton; 1987. p. 239–48.Google Scholar
  163. 163.
    Lim SJ, Cormier JN, Feig BW, et al. Toxicity and outcomes associated with surgical cytoreduction and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) for patients with sarcomatosis. Ann Surg Oncol. 2007;14:2309–18.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    Glenn J, Sindelar WF, Kinsella T, et al. Results of multimodality therapy of resectable soft-tissue sarcomas of the retroperitoneum. Surgery. 1985;97:316–25.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    Potter DA, Glenn J, Kinsella T, et al. Patterns of recurrence in patients with high-grade soft-tissue sarcomas. J Clin Oncol. 1985;3:353–66.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. 166.
    Dalal KM, Antonescu CR, Singer S. Diagnosis and management of lipomatous tumors. J Surg Oncol. 2008;97:298–313.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. 167.
    Kim EY, Kim SJ, Choi D, et al. Recurrence of retroperitoneal liposarcoma: imaging findings and growth rates at follow-up CT. AJR. 2008;191:1841–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. 168.
    Milic DJ, Rajkovic MM, Pejcic VD. Primary omental liposarcoma presenting as an incarcerated inguinal hernia. Hernia. 2005;9(1):88–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. 169.
    Fotiadis C, Zografos GN, Karatzas G, Papachristodoulou A, Sechas MN. Recurrent liposarcomas of the abdomen and retroperitoneum: three case reports. Anticancer Res. 2000;20(1B):579–83.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. 170.
    Jaques DP, Coit DG, Hajdu SI, Brennan MF. Management of primary and recurrent soft-tissue sarcoma of the retroperitoneum. Ann Surg. 1990;212:51–9.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. 171.
    Rossi CR, Casali P, Kusamura S, et al. The consensus statement on the locoregional treatment of abdominal sarcomatosis. J Surg Oncol. 2008;98:291–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. 172.
    Pickhardt PJ, Bhalla S. Primary neoplasms of peritoneal and subperitoneal origin: CT findings. Radiographics. 2005;25:983–95.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. 173.
    Tirumani SH, Deaver P, Shinagare AB, et al. Metastatic pattern of uterine leiomyosarcoma: retrospective analysis of the predictors and outcome in 113 patients. J Gynecol Oncol. 2014;25(4):306–12. Scholar
  174. 174.
    Sugarbaker P, Ihemelandu C, Bijelic L. Cytoreductive surgery and HIPEC as a treatment option for laparoscopic resection of uterine leiomyosarcoma with morcellation: early results. Ann Surg Oncol. 2016;23(5):1501–7. Scholar
  175. 175.
    Oduyebo T, Rauh-Hain AJ, Meserve EE, Seidman MA, Hinchcliff E, George S, Quade B, Nucci MR, Del Carmen MG, Muto MG. The value of re-exploration in patients with inadvertently morcellated uterine sarcoma. Gynecol Oncol. 2014;132(2):360–5. Scholar
  176. 176.
    Rose PG, Piver MS, Tsukada Y, Lau T. Patterns of metastasis in uterine sarcoma. An autopsy study. Cancer. 1989;63(5):935–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. 177.
    Estourgie SH, Nielsen GP, Ott MJ. Metastatic patterns of extremity myxoid liposarcoma and their outcome. J Surg Oncol. 2002;80:89–93.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. 178.
    Bilimoria MM, Holtz DJ, Mirza NQ, Feig BW, Pisters PW, Patel S, et al. Tumor volume as a prognostic factor for sarcomatosis. Cancer. 2002;94:2441–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. 179.
    Chu DZ, Lang NP, Thompson C, Osteen PK, Westbrook KC. Peritoneal carcinomatosis in non-gynecologic malignancy. A prospective study of prognostic factors. Cancer. 1989;63:364–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. 180.
    Mudan SS, Conlon KC, Woodruff JM, Lewis JJ, Brennan MF. Salvage surgery for patients with recurrent gastrointestinal sarcoma: prognostic factors to guide patient selection. Cancer. 2000;88:66–74.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. 181.
    Confuorto G, Giuliano ME, Grimaldi A, Viviano C. Peritoneal carcinomatosis from colorectal cancer: HIPEC? Surg Oncol. 2007;16(Suppl 1):S149–52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. 182.
    Berthet B, Sugarbaker TA, Chang D, Sugarbaker PH. Quantitative methodologies for selection of patients with recurrent abdominopelvic sarcoma for treatment. Eur J Cancer. 1999;35:413–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. 183.
    Rossi CR, Deraco M, De Simone M, et al. Hyperthermic intraperitoneal intraoperative chemotherapy after cytoreductive surgery for the treatment of abdominal sarcomatosis: clinical outcome and prognostic factors in 60 consecutive patients. Cancer. 2004;100:1943–50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. 184.
    Bonvalot S, Cavalcanti A, Le Pechoux C, et al. Randomized trial of cytoreduction followed by intraperitoneal chemotherapy versus cytoreduction alone in patients with peritoneal sarcomatosis. Eur J Surg Oncol. 2005;31:917–23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. 185.
    Baumgartner JM, Ahrendt SA, Pingpank JF, Holtzman MP, Ramalingam L, Jones HL, Zureikat AH, Zeh HJ, Bartlett DL, Choudry HA. Aggressive locoregional management of recurrent peritoneal sarcomatosis. J Surg Oncol. 2013;107(4):329–34. Scholar
  186. 186.
    Karakousis CP, Kontzoglou K, Driscoll DL. Intraperitoneal chemotherapy in disseminated abdominal sarcoma. Ann Surg Oncol. 1997;4:496–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. 187.
    Eilber FC, Rosen G, Forscher C, Nelson SD, Dorey FJ, Eilber FR. Surgical resection and intraperitoneal chemotherapy for recurrent abdominal sarcomas. Ann Surg Oncol. 1999;6:645–50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. 188.
    Kusamura S, Raspagliesi F, Baratti D, Gronchi A, Casali P, Deraco M. Uterine sarcoma treated by cytoreductive surgery and intraperitoneal hyperthermic perfusion: a feasibility study. J Chemother. 2004;16(Suppl 5):19–22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. 189.
    Levine EA, Stewart JH, Russell GB, Geisinger KR, Loggie BL, Shen P. Cytoreductive surgery and intraperitoneal hyperthermic chemotherapy for peritoneal surface malignancy: experience with 501 procedures. J Am Coll Surg. 2007;204:943–53; discussion 953–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. 190.
    Gusani NJ, Cho SW, Colovos C, Seo S, Franko J, Richard SD, et al. Aggressive surgical management of peritoneal carcinomatosis with low mortality in a high-volume tertiary cancer center. Ann Surg Oncol. 2008;15:754–63.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. 191.
    Randle RW, Swett KR, Shen P, Stewart JH, Levine EA, Votanopoulos KI. Cytoreductive surgery with hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy in peritoneal sarcomatosis. Am Surg. 2013;79(6):620–4.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  192. 192.
    Jimenez WA, Sardi A, Nieroda C, Gushchin V. Cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy in the management of recurrent high-grade uterine sarcoma with peritoneal dissemination. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2014;210(3):259.e1–8. Scholar
  193. 193.
    Spiliotis J, Kopanakis N, Argyriou EO, Vafias E, Efstathiou E. Locoregional treatment of peritoneal sarcomatosis A single-centre experience. Ann Ital Chir. 2016;87:333–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  194. 194.
    Hatcher H, Benson C, Ajithkumar T. Systemic treatments in soft tissue sarcomas. Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol). 2017;29(8):507–515. pii: S0936-6555(17)30227-3. Scholar
  195. 195.
    Vasseur B, Cadiot G, Zins M, et al. Peritoneal carcinomatosis in patients with digestive endocrine tumors. Cancer. 1996;78:1686–92.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  196. 196.
    Mitry E, O’Toole D, Louvet C, et al. Resultats de l’enqu^ete nationale FFCD-ANGH-GERCOR sur les tumeurs endocrines a localisation digestive. Gastroenterol Clin Biol. 2003;27:A135.Google Scholar
  197. 197.
    Norlen O, Stalberg P, Oberg K, et al. Long-term results of surgery for small intestinal neuroendocrine tumors in a tertiary referral center. World J Surg. 2012;36:1419–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. 198.
    Modlin IM, Lye KD, Kidd M. A 5-decade analysis of 13,715 carcinoid tumors. Cancer. 2003;97:934–59.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. 199.
    Elias D, Goéré D, Dumont F, Honoré C, Dartigues P, Stoclin A, Malka D, Boige V, Ducreux M. Role of hyperthermic intraoperative peritoneal chemotherapy in the management of peritoneal metastases. Eur J Cancer. 2014;50(2):332–40. Scholar
  200. 200.
    Ruiz-Tovar J, Alonso HN, Morales CV, Lobo ME, Sanjuanbenito DA, Martinez ME. Peritoneal carcinomatosis secondary to carcinoid tumour. Clin Transl Oncol. 2007;9:804–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  201. 201.
    Vinik AI, Thompson N, Eckhauser F, Moattari R. Clinical features of carcinoid syndrome and the use of somatostatin analogue in its management. Acta Oncol. 1989;28:389–402.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  202. 202.
    Koppe MJ, Boerman OC, Oyen WJ, Bleichrodt RP. Peritoneal carcinomatosis of colorectal origin: incidence and current treatment strategies. Ann Surg. 2006;243:212–22.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  203. 203.
    Glockzin G, Schlitt HJ, Piso P. Peritoneal carcinomatosis: patients selection, perioperative complications and quality of life related to cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy. World J Surg Oncol. 2009;7:5.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  204. 204.
    Royal RE, Pingpank JF Jr. Diagnosis and management of peritoneal carcinomatosis arising from adenocarcinoma of the colon and rectum. Semin Oncol. 2008;35:183–91.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  205. 205.
    Glehen O, Osinsky D, Beaujard AC, Gilly FN. Natural history of peritoneal carcinomatosis from nongynecologic malignancies. Surg Oncol Clin N Am. 2003;12:729–39, xiii.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  206. 206.
    Lifante JC, Glehen O, Cotte E, Beaujard AC, Gilly FN. Natural history of peritoneal carcinomatosis from digestive origin. Cancer Treat Res. 2007;134:119–29.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  207. 207.
    Konig HH, Ulshofer A, Gregor M, von Tirpitz C, Reinshagen M, Adler G, Leidl R. Validation of the EuroQol questionnaire in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2002;14:1205–15.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  208. 208.
    Gonzalez RS, Liu EH, Alvarez JR, Ayers GD, Washington MK, Shi C. Should mesenteric tumor deposits be included in staging of well differentiated small intestine neuroendocrine tumors? Mod Pathol. 2014;27:1288–95.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  209. 209.
    Chambers AJ, Pasieka JL, Dixon E, Rorstad O. Role of imaging in the preoperative staging of small bowel neuroendocrine tumors. J Am Coll Surg. 2010;211:620–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  210. 210.
    Søreide O, Berstad T, Bakka A, Schrumpf E, Hanssen LE, Engh V, Bergan A, Flatmark A. Surgical treatment as a principle in patients with advanced abdominal carcinoid tumors. Surgery. 1992;111:48–54.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  211. 211.
    Elias D, Lefevre JH, Duvillard P, Goéré D, Dromain C, Dumont F, Baudin E. Hepatic metastases from neuroendocrine tumors with a thin slice CT scan and pathological examination: they are many more than you think. Ann Surg. 2010;251:307–10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  212. 212.
    Dromain C, de Baere T, Lumbroso J, Caillet H, Laplanche A, Boige V, Ducreux M, Duvillard P, Elias D, Schlumberger M, Sigal R, Baudin E. Detection of liver metastases from endocrine tumors: a prospective comparison of somatostatin receptor scintigraphy, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging. J Clin Oncol. 2005;23:70–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  213. 213.
    Frilling A, Sotiropoulos GC, Radtke A, Malago M, Bockisch A, Kuehl H, Broelsch CE. The impact of 68Ga-DOTATOC positron emission tomography/computed tomography on the multimodal management of patients with neuroendocrine tumors. Ann Surg. 2010;252:850–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  214. 214.
    Ruf J, Heuck F, Schiefer J, Denecke T, Elgeti F, Pascher A, Pavel M, Stelter L, Kropf S, Wiedenmann B, Amthauer H. Impact of multiphase 68Ga-DOTATOC-PET/CT on therapy management in patients with neuroendocrine tumors. Neuroendocrinology. 2010;91:101–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  215. 215.
    Ambrosini V, Campana D, Bodei L, Nanni C, Castellucci P, Allegri V, Nanni C, Malvi D, Tonveronachi E, Fasano L, Fabbri M, Fanti S. 68Ga-DOTANOC PET/CT clinical impact in patients with neuroendocrine tumors. J Nucl Med. 2010;51:669–73.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  216. 216.
    Kianmanesh R, Ruszniewski P, Rindi G, et al. ENETS consensus guidelines for the management of peritoneal carcinomatosis from neuroendocrine tumors. Neuroendocrinology. 2010;91:333–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  217. 217.
    Elias D, Sideris L, Liberale G, Ducreux M, Malka D, Lasser P, Duvillard P, Baudin E. Surgical treatment of peritoneal carcinomatosis from well-differentiated digestive endocrine carcinomas. Surgery. 2005;137:411–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  218. 218.
    Touzios J, Kiely J, Pitt S, et al. Neuroendocrine hepatic metastases. Ann Surg. 2005;241:776–85.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  219. 219.
    Maxwell JE, Sherman SK, O’Dorisio TM, et al. Liver-directed surgery of neuroendocrine metastases: what is the optimal strategy? Surgery. 2016;159:320–35.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  220. 220.
    Norlén O, Stålberg P, Öberg K, et al. Long-term results of surgery for small intestinal neuroendocrine tumors at a tertiary referral center. World J Surg. 2012;36:1419–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  221. 221.
    Norlén O, Edfeldt K, Akerstrom G, Westin G, Hellman P, Bjorklund P, et al. Peritoneal carcinomatosis from small intestinal neuroendocrine tumors: clinical course and genetic profiling. Surgery. 2014;156:1512–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  222. 222.
    WHO classification of ovarian neoplasms. website. Accessed 1 July 2017.
  223. 223.
    Frumovitz M, Schmeler KM, Malpica A, Sood AK, Gershenson DM. Unmasking the complexities of mucinous ovarian carcinoma. Gynecol Oncol. 2010;117(3):491–6. Scholar
  224. 224.
    McGuire WP, Hoskins WJ, Brady MF, Kucera PR, Partridge EE, Look KY, Clarke-Pearson DL, Davidson M. Cyclophosphamide and cisplatin compared with paclitaxel and cisplatin in patients with stage III and stage IV ovarian cancer. N Engl J Med. 1996;334:1–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  225. 225.
    Piccart MJ, Bertelsen K, James K, et al. Randomized intergroup trial of cisplatin-paclitaxel versus cisplatin-cyclophosphamide in women with advanced epithelial ovarian cancer: three-year results. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2000;92:699–708.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  226. 226.
    Muggia FM, Braly PS, Brady MF, Sutton G, Niemann TH, Lentz SL, Alvarez RD, Kucera PR, Small JM. Phase III randomized study of cisplatin versus paclitaxel versus cisplatin and paclitaxel in patients with suboptimal stage III or IV ovarian cancer: a gynecologic oncology group study. J Clin Oncol. 2000;18:106–15.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  227. 227.
    Bookman MA, Brady MF, McGuire WP, Harper PG, Alberts DS, Friedlander M, Colombo N, Fowler JM, Argenta PA, De Geest K, Mutch DG, Burger RA, Swart AM, Trimble EL, Accario-Winslow C, Roth LM. Evaluation of new platinum-based treatment regimens in advanced-stage ovarian cancer: a phase III trial of the gynecologic cancer intergroup. J Clin Oncol. 2009;27:1419–25.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  228. 228.
    Marchini S, Mariani P, Chiorino G, Marrazzo E, Bonomi R, Fruscio R, Clivio L, Garbi A, Torri V, Cinquini M, Dell’Anna T, Apolone G, Broggini M, D’Incalci M. Analysis of gene expression in early-stage ovarian cancer. Clin Cancer Res. 2008;14:7850–60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  229. 229.
    Heinzelmann-Schwarz VA, Gardiner-Garden M, Henshall SM, Scurry JP, Scolyer RA, Smith AN, Bali A, Vanden Bergh P, Baron-Hay S, Scott C, Fink D, Hacker NF, Sutherland RL, O’Brien PM. A distinct molecular profile associated with mucinous epithelial ovarian cancer. Br J Cancer. 2006;94:904–13.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  230. 230.
    Seidman JD, Horkayne-Szakaly I, Haiba M, Boice CR, Kurman RJ, Ronnett BM. The histologic type and stage distribution of ovarian carcinomas of surface epithelial origin. Int J Gynecol Pathol. 2004;23:41–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  231. 231.
    Shimada M, Kigawa J, Ohishi Y, Yasuda M, Suzuki M, Hiura M, Nishimura R, Tabata T, Sugiyama T, Kaku T. Clinicopathological characteristics of mucinous adenocarcinoma of the ovary. Gynecol Oncol. 2009;113:331–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  232. 232.
    Riopel MA, Ronnett BM, Kurman RJ. Evaluation of diagnostic criteria and behavior of ovarian intestinal-type mucinous tumors: atypical proliferative (borderline) tumors and intraepithelial, microinvasive, invasive, and metastatic carcinomas. Am J Surg Pathol. 1999;23:617–35.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  233. 233.
    Leblanc E, Querleu D, Narducci F, Occelli B, Papageorgiou T, Sonoda Y. Laparoscopic restaging of early stage invasive adnexal tumors: a 10-year experience. Gynecol Oncol. 2004;94:624–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  234. 234.
    Ji J, Forsti A, Sundquist J, Lenner P, Hemminki K. Survival in ovarian cancer patients by histology and family history. Acta Oncol. 2008;47:1133–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  235. 235.
    Winter WE, Maxwell GL, Tian C, Carlson JW, Ozols RF, Rose PG, Markman M, Armstrong DK, Muggia F, McGuire WP. Prognostic factors for stage III epithelial ovarian cancer: a Gynecologic Oncology Group Study. J Clin Oncol. 2007;25:3621–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  236. 236.
    Kikkawa F, Nawa A, Kajiyama H, Fletcher Allen Health Care, et al. Clinical characteristics and prognosis of mucinous tumors of the ovary. Gynecol Oncol. 2006;103:171–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  237. 237.
    Chaitin B, Gershenson D, Evans H. Mucinous tumors of the ovary. Cancer. 1985;55:1958–62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  238. 238.
    Zaino RJ, Brady MF, Lele SM, Michael H, Greer B, Bookman MA. Advanced stage mucinous adenocarcinoma of the ovary is both rare and highly lethal: a Gynecologic Oncology Group Study. Cancer. 2011;117(3):554–62. Scholar
  239. 239.
    Hess V, A’Hern R, Nasiri N, et al. Mucinous epithelial ovarian cancer: a separate entity requiring specific treatment. J Clin Oncol. 2004;22:1040–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  240. 240.
    Pisano C, Greggi S, Tambaro R, et al. Activity of chemotherapy in mucinous epithelial ovarian cancer: a retrospective study. Anticancer Res. 2005;25:3501–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  241. 241.
    Pectasides D, Fountzilas G, Aravantinos G, et al. Advanced stage mucinous epithelial ovarian cancer: the Hellenic Cooperative Oncology Group experience. Gynecol Oncol. 2005;97:436–41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  242. 242.
    Sun J-H, Ji Z-H, Yu Y, et al. Cytoreductive surgery plus hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy to treat advanced/recurrent epithelial ovarian cancer: results from a retrospective study on prospectively established database. Transl Oncol. 2016;9(2):130–8. Scholar
  243. 243.
    Dogan A, Solass W, Tempfer CB. Cytoreductive surgery followed by hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy for recurrent adult granulosa cell tumor: a case report. Gynecol Oncol Rep. 2016;16:21–3. Scholar
  244. 244.
    Mangili G, Ottolina J, Gadducci A, Giorda G, Breda E, Savarese A, et al. Long-term follow-up is crucial after treatment for granulosa cell tumours of the ovary. Br J Cancer. 2013;109:29–34. Scholar
  245. 245.
    Colombo N, Sessa C, Landoni F, Sartori E, Pecorelli S, Mangioni C. Cisplatin, vinblastine, and bleomycin combination chemotherapy in metastatic granulosa cell tumor of the ovary. Obstet Gynecol. 1986;67(2):265–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  246. 246.
    Savage P, Constenla D, Fisher C, Shepherd JH, Barton DP, Blake P, et al. Granulosa cell tumours of the ovary: demographics, survival and the management of advanced disease. Clinical Oncol (R Coll Radiol). 1998;10(4):242–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  247. 247.
    Ayhan A, Salman M, Velipasaoglu M, Sakinci M, Yuce K. Prognostic factors in adult granulosa cell tumors of the ovary: a retrospective analysis of 80 cases. J Gynecol Oncol. 2009;20(3):158–63.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  248. 248.
    Kim YM, Jung M, Kim K, Kim YT, Nam J, Mok J. Adult granulosa cell tumor of the ovary: 35 cases in a single Korean institute. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2006;85:112–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  249. 249.
    Savage P, Constenla D, Fisher C, Shepherd J, Barton D, Blake P, et al. Granulosa cell tumors of the ovary: demographics, survival and the management of advanced disease. Clin Oncol. 1998;10:242–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  250. 250.
    Aboud E. Adult granulosa cell tumours of the ovary. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol. 1997;XVIII(6):520–2.Google Scholar
  251. 251.
    Gurumurthy M, Bryant A, Shanbhag S. Effectiveness of different treatment modalities for the management of adult-onset granulosa cell tumours of the ovary (primary and recurrent). Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014;21(4):CD006912.Google Scholar
  252. 252.
    Fotopoulou C, Savvatis K, Braicu EI, et al. Adult granulosa cell tumors of the ovary: tumor dissemination pattern at primary and recurrent situation, surgical outcome. Gynecol Oncol. 2010;119:285–90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  253. 253.
    Al-Badawi IA, Brasher PM, Ghatage P, Nation JG, Schepansky A, Stuart GC. Postoperative chemotherapy in advanced ovarian granulosa cell tumors. Int J Gynecol Cancer. 2002;12:119–23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  254. 254.
    Colombo N, Parma G, Zanagnolo V, Insinga A. Management of ovarian stromal cell tumors. J Clin Oncol. 2007;25:2944–51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  255. 255.
    Schumer ST, Cannistra SA. Granulosa cell tumor of the ovary. J Clin Oncol. 2003;21:1180–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  256. 256.
    Pautier P, Gutierrez-Bonnaire M, Rey A, et al. Combination of bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin for the treatment of advanced ovarian granulosa cell tumors. Int J Gynecol Cancer. 2008;18:446–52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  257. 257.
    Canbay E, Ishibashi H, Sako S, Miyata R, Nishino E, Yonemura Y. Management of peritoneal dissemination of recurrences granulosa cell tumor of the ovary. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho. 2012;39(12):2435–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  258. 258.
    Gouy S, Uzan C, Pautier P, Lhomme C, Duvillard P, Morice P. Results of oxaliplatin-based hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy in recurrent ovarian granulosa cell tumors. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2013;170(2):464–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  259. 259.
    Tao X, Sood AK, Deavers MT, et al. Anti-angiogenesis therapy with bevacizumab for patients with ovarian granulosa cell tumors. Gynecol Oncol. 2009;114:431–6.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  260. 260.
    Gershenson DM. Management of ovarian germ cell tumors. J Clin Oncol. 2007;25(20):2938–43.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  261. 261.
    Tavassoli FA, Deville P. Pathology and genetics of tumours of the breast and female genital organs. Lyon: International Agency for Research on Cancer; 2003.Google Scholar
  262. 262.
    Roth LM, Talerman A. Recent advances in the pathology and classification of ovarian germ cell tumors. Int J Gynecol Pathol. 2006;25:305–20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  263. 263.
    Williams SD, Blessing JA, Moore DH, et al. Cisplatin, vinblastine, and bleomycin in advanced and recurrent ovarian germ-cell tumors: a trial of the Gynecologic Oncology Group. Ann Intern Med. 1989;111:22–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  264. 264.
    Slayton RE, Park RC, Silverberg SG, et al. Vincristine, dactinomycin, and cyclophosphamide in the treatment of malignant germ cell tumors of the ovary: a Gynecologic Oncology Group Study (a final report). Cancer. 1985;56:243–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  265. 265.
    Messing MJ, Gershenson DM, Morris M, et al. Primary treatment failure in patients with malignant ovarian germ cell neoplasms. Int J Gynecol Cancer. 1992;2:295–300.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  266. 266.
    Munkarah A, Gershenson DM, Levenback C, et al. Salvage surgery for chemorefractory ovarian germ cell tumors. Gynecol Oncol. 1994;55:217–23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  267. 267.
    Hayes-Jordan A, Lopez C, Green H, Xiao L, Huh W, Herzog C. Cytoreductive Surgery (CRS) and Hyperthermic Intraperitoneal Chemotherapy (HIPEC) in pediatric ovarian tumors: a novel treatment approach. Pediatr Surg Int. 2016;32(1):71–3. Scholar
  268. 268.
    Hayes-Jordan A, Green H, Lin H, et al. Cytoreductive Surgery and Hyperthermic Intraperitoneal Chemotherapy (HIPEC) for children, adolescents, and young adults: the first 50 cases. Ann Surg Oncol. 2015;22:1726. Scholar
  269. 269.
    Gough DB, Donohue JH, Schutt AJ, et al. Pseudomyxoma peritonei. Long-term patient survival with an aggressive regional approach. Ann Surg. 1994;219:112–9.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  270. 270.
    Mendeloff J, McSwain NE Jr. Pseudomyxoma peritonei due to mucinous adenocarcinoma of the urachus. South Med J. 1971;64:497–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  271. 271.
    Cappele O, Sibert L, Descargues J, Delmas V, Grise P. A study of the anatomic features of the duct of the urachus. Surg Radiol Anat. 2001;23:229–35.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  272. 272.
    Sheldon CA, Clayman RV, Gonzalez R, Williams RD, Fraley EE. Malignant urachal lesions. J Urol. 1984;131:1–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  273. 273.
    Sugarbaker PH, Verghese M, Yan TD, Brun E. Management of mucinous urachal neoplasm presenting as pseudomyxoma peritonei. Tumori. 2008;94(5):732–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  274. 274.
    Stenhouse G, McRae D, Pollock AM. Urachal adenocarcinoma in situ with pseudomyxoma peritonei: a case report. J Clin Pathol. 2003;56:152–3.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  275. 275.
    de Bree E, Witkamp A, Van de Vijver M, Zoetmulder F. Unusual origins of pseudomyxoma peritonei. J Surg Oncol. 2000;75:270–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  276. 276.
    Loggie BW, Fleming RA, Hosseinian AA. Peritoneal carcinomatosis with urachal signet-cell adenocarcinoma. Urology. 1997;50:446–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  277. 277.
    Santucci RA, True LD, Lange PH. Is partial cystectomy the treatment of choice for mucinous adenocarcinoma of the urachus? Urology. 1997;49:536–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  278. 278.
    Amin MB, Smith SC, Eble JN, Rao P, Choi WW, Tamboli P, Young RH. Glandular neoplasms of the urachus: a report of 55 cases emphasizing mucinous cystic tumors with proposed classification. Am J Surg Pathol. 2014;38(8):1033–45. Scholar
  279. 279.
    Honoré C, Goéré D, Macovei L, et al. Peritoneal carcinomatosis from unusual cancer origins: is there a role for hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy? J Visc Surg. 2015;153(2):101–7. Scholar
  280. 280.
    Liu Y, Ishibashi H, Hirano M, Takeshita K, Mizumoto A, Ichinose M, Nishino E, Kashu I, Yamamoto Y, Sugarbaker PH, Yonemura Y. Cytoreductive surgery plus hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy for pseudomyxoma peritonei arising from urachus. Ann Surg Oncol. 2015;22(8):2799–805.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  281. 281.
    Sasano H, Shizawa S, Naguro H, Yamaki T. Mucinous adenocarcinoma arising in a giant urachal cyst associated with pseudomyxoma peritonei and stromal osseus metaplasia. Pathol Int. 1997;47:502–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  282. 282.
    Yanagisawa S, Fujinaga Y, Kadoya M. Urachal mucinous cystadenocarcinoma with a cystic ovarian metastasis. AJR. 2003;180:1183–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  283. 283.
    Shinohara T, Misawa K, Sano H, Okawa Y, Takada A. Pseudomyxoma peritonei due to mucinous cystadenocarcinoma in situ of the urachus presenting as an inguinal hernia. Int J Clin Oncol. 2006;11:416–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  284. 284.
    Soto Delgado M, Pedrero Márquez G, Varo Solís C, et al. Mucinous adenocarcinoma of the urachus and peritoneal pseudomyxoma. Actas Urol Esp. 2006;30:222–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  285. 285.
    Khalid K, Ahmed MS, Malik MS. Adenocarcinoma of urachal cyst associated with pseudomyxoma peritonei masquerading as abdominal tuberculosis: a case report and review of literature. Indian J Urol. 2008;24:258–60.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  286. 286.
    Sugiyama K, Ito N. Mucinous cystadenocarcinoma of the urachus associated with pseudomyxoma peritonei with emphasis on MRI findings. Magn Reson Med Sci. 2009;8:85–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  287. 287.
    Lamb BW, Vaidyanathan R, Laniado M, Karim O, Motiwala H. Mucinous adenocarcinoma of the urachal remnant with pseudomyxoma peritonei. Urol J. 2010;7:138–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  288. 288.
    Nozaki T, Yasuda K, Watanabe A, Fuse H. Laparoscopic management of urachal mucinous borderline tumor associated with pseudomyxoma peritonei. Surg Laparosc Endosc Percutan Tech. 2011;21:e152–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  289. 289.
    Kebapci M, Saylisoy S, Can C, Dundar E. Radiologic findings of urachal mucinous cystadenocarcinoma causing pseudomyxoma peritonei. Jpn J Radiol. 2012;30:345–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  290. 290.
    Martínez A, Ferron G, Mery E, Gladieff L, Delord JP, Querleu D. Peritoneal pseudomyxoma arising from the urachus. Surg Oncol. 2012;21:1–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  291. 291.
    Agrawal AK, Bobiński P, Grzebieniak Z, et al. Pseudomyxoma peritonei originating from urachus—case report and review of the literature. Curr Oncol. 2014;21(1):e155–65. Scholar
  292. 292.
    Shelekhova K, Zhuravlev A, Krylova D, et al. Pseudomyxoma peritonei as a first manifestation of KRAS-mutated urachal mucinous cystadenocarcinoma of the bladder: a case report. Int J Surg Pathol. 2017;25(6):563–6. Scholar
  293. 293.
    Behbakht K, Yordan EL, Casey C, et al. Prognostic indicators of survival in advanced endometrial cancer. Gynecol Oncol. 1994;55:363–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  294. 294.
    Cook AM, Lodge N, Blake P. Stage IV endometrial carcinoma: a 10 year review of patients. Br J Radiol. 1999;72:485–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  295. 295.
    Vardi JR, Tadros GH, Anselmo MT, Rafla SD. The value of exploratory laparotomy in patients with endometrial carcinoma according to the new International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics staging. Obstet Gynecol. 1992;80:204–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  296. 296.
    Wolfson AH, Sightler SE, Markoe AM, et al. The prognostic significance of surgical staging for carcinoma of the endometrium. Gynecol Oncol. 1992;45:142–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  297. 297.
    Trope CG, Alektiar KM, Sabbatini PJ, Zaino RJ. In: Hoskins WP, Perez CA, Young RC, Barakat R, Markman M, Randall M, editors. Principles and practice of gynecologic oncology. 4th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2005. p. 823–72.Google Scholar
  298. 298.
    Aalders JG, Abeler V, Kolstad P. Recurrent adenocarcinoma of the endometrium: a clinical and histopathological study of 379 patients. Gynecol Oncol. 1984;17:85–103.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  299. 299.
    Gallion HH, Van Nagell JR, Powell DF, et al. Stage I serous papillary carcinoma of the endometrium. Cancer. 1989;63:2224–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  300. 300.
    Abeler VM, Kjorstad KE. Serous papillary carcinoma of the endometrium: a histopathological study of 22 cases. Gynecol Oncol. 1990;39:266–71.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  301. 301.
    Cirisano FD, Robboy SJ, Dodge RK, et al. Epidemiologic and surgicopathologic findings of papillary serous and clear cell endometrial cancers when compared to endometrioid carcinoma. Gynecol Oncol. 1999;74:385–94.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  302. 302.
    Silva EG, Jenkins R. Serous carcinoma in endometrial polyps. Mod Pathol. 1990;3:120–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  303. 303.
    Snyder MJ, Bentley R, Robboy SJ. Trans-tubal spread of serous adenocarcinoma of the endometrium: an under recognized mechanism of metastasis. Int J Gynecol Pathol. 2006;25:155–60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  304. 304.
    Greer BE, Hamberger AD. Treatment of intraperitoneal metastatic adenocarcinoma of the endometrium by the whole-abdomen moving-strip technique and pelvic boost irradiation. Gynecol Oncol. 1983;16:365–73.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  305. 305.
    Martinez A, Podratz K, Schray M, Malkasian G. Results of whole abdominopelvic irradiation with nodal boost for patients with endometrial cancer at high risk of failure in the peritoneal cavity. A prospective clinical trial at the Mayo Clinic. Hematol Oncol Clin North Am. 1988;2:431–46.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  306. 306.
    Pliskow S, Penalver M, Averette HE. Stage III and stage IV endometrial carcinoma: a review of 41 cases. Gynecol Oncol. 1990;38:210–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  307. 307.
    Barlin JN, Puri I, Bristow RE. Cytoreductive surgery for advanced or recurrent endometrial cancer: a meta-analysis. Gynecol Oncol. 2010;118(1):14–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  308. 308.
    Abu-Zaid A, Azzam AZ, AlOmar O, Salem H, Amin T, Al-Badawi IA. Cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy for managing peritoneal carcinomatosis from endometrial carcinoma: a single-center experience of 6 cases. Ann Saudi Med. 2014;34:159–66.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  309. 309.
    Burke TW, Heller PB, Woodward JE, et al. Treatment failure in endometrial carcinoma. Obstet Gynecol. 1990;75:96–101.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  310. 310.
    Creasman W, Odicino F, Maisonneuve P, et al. Carcinoma of the corpus uteri. In: Percolli S, Creaseman WT, Pettersson F, Benedet JL, et al., editors. FIGO annual report on the results of treatment in gynaecological cancer, vol. 23. Oxford: Isis Medical Media, Ltd.; 1998.Google Scholar
  311. 311.
    Reddoch JM, Burke TW, Morris M, et al. Surveillance for recurrent endometrial carcinoma: development of a follow-up scheme. Gynecol Oncol. 1995;59:221–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  312. 312.
    Yoonessi M, Anderson DG, Morley GW. Endometrial carcinoma: causes of death and sites of treatment failure. Cancer. 1979;43:1944–50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  313. 313.
    Price FV, Edwards RP, Kelley JL, Kunschner AJ, Hart LA. A trial of outpatient paclitaxel and carboplatin for advanced, recurrent and histologic high-risk endometrial carcinoma: preliminary report. Semin Oncol. 1997;24:S15-78–82.Google Scholar
  314. 314.
    Hoskins PJ, Swenerton KD, Pike JA, et al. Paclitaxel and carboplatin, alone or with irradiation, in advanced or recurrent endometrial cancer: a phase II study. J Clin Oncol. 2001;19:4048–53.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  315. 315.
    Scudder SA, Liu PY, Wilczynski SP, et al. Paclitaxel and carboplatin with amifostine in advanced, recurrent, or refractory endometrial adenocarcinoma: a phase II study of the Southwest Oncology Group. Gynecol Oncol. 2005;96:610–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  316. 316.
    Thigpen JT, Blessing JA, Hatch KD, Barrett R, Adelson M, DiSaia PJ. Oral medroxyprogesterone acetate in the treatment of advanced or recurrent endometrial carcinoma. J Clin Oncol. 1999;17:1736–44.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  317. 317.
    Lentz SS, Brady MF, Major FJ, Reid GC, Soper JT. A phase II trial of high dose megestrol acetate (Megace) in advanced or recurrent endometrial carcinoma. J Clin Oncol. 1996;14:357–61.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  318. 318.
    McMeekin DS, Gordon A, Fowler J, et al. A phase II trial of arzoxifene, a selective estrogen response modulator, in patients with recurrent or advanced endometrial cancer. Gynecol Oncol. 2003;90:64–9.Google Scholar
  319. 319.
    Scarabelli C, Campagnutta E, Giorda G, et al. Maximal cytoreductive surgery as a reasonable therapeutic alternative for recurrent endometrial cancer. Gynecol Oncol. 1998;70:90–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  320. 320.
    Campagnutta E, Giorda G, DePiero G, et al. Surgical treatment of recurrent endometrial carcinoma. Cancer. 2004;100:89–96.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  321. 321.
    Awtrey CS, Cadungog MG, Leitao MM, et al. Surgical resection of recurrent endometrial carcinoma. Gynecol Oncol. 2006;102:480–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  322. 322.
    Helm CW, Toler CR, Martin RS, et al. Cytoreduction and intraperitoneal heated chemotherapy for the treatment of endometrial carcinoma recurrent within the peritoneal cavity. Int J Gynecol Cancer. 2007;17:204–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  323. 323.
    Bakrin N, Cotte E, Sayag-Beaujard A, et al. Cytoreductive surgery with hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy for the treatment of recurrent endometrial carcinoma confined to the peritoneal cavity. Int J Gynecol Cancer. 2010;20:809–14.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  324. 324.
    Delotte J, Desantis M, Frigenza M, et al. Cytoreductive surgery with hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy for the treatment of endometrial cancer with peritoneal carcinomatosis. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2014;172:111–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  325. 325.
    Cardi M, Sammartino P, Mingarelli V, et al. Cytoreduction and HIPEC in the treatment of “unconventional” secondary peritoneal carcinomatosis. World J Surg Oncol. 2015;13:305. Scholar
  326. 326.
    Santeufemia DA, Lumachi F, Basso SM, et al. Cytoreductive surgery with hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy as salvage treatment for a late wound recurrence of endometrial cancer. Anticancer Res. 2013;33:1041–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  327. 327.
    Gusani NJ, Cho SW, Colovos C, Seo S, Franko J, Richard SD, et al. Aggressive surgical management of peritoneal carcinomatosis with low mortality in a high volume tertiary center. Ann Surg Oncol. 2008;15:654–63. Scholar
  328. 328.
    Glehen O, Gilly F, Arvieux C. Peritoneal carcinomatosis from gastric cancer: a multi institutional study of 159 patients treated by cytoreductive surgery combined with perioperative intraperitoneal chemotherapy. Ann Surg Oncol. 2010;17:2370–7. Scholar
  329. 329.
    El-Serag HB, Davila JA. Is fibrolamellar carcinoma different from hepatocellular carcinoma? A US population-based study. Hepatology. 2004;39:798–803.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  330. 330.
    Stipa F, Yoon SS, Liau KH, et al. Outcome of patients with fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma. Cancer. 2006;106:1331–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  331. 331.
    Craig JR, Peters RL, Edmondson HA, Omata M. Fibrolamellar carcinoma of the liver: a tumor of adolescents and young adults with distinctive clinicopathologic features. Cancer. 1980;46:372–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  332. 332.
    Nagorney DM, Adson MA, Weiland LH, et al. Fibrolamellar hepatoma. Am J Surg. 1985;149:113–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  333. 333.
    Ang CS, Kelley RK, Choti MA, et al. Clinicopathologic characteristics and survival outcomes of patients with fibrolamellar carcinoma: data from the fibrolamellar carcinoma consortium. Gastrointest Cancer Res. 2013;6:3–9.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  334. 334.
    Mayo SC, Mavros MN, Nathan H, et al. Treatment and prognosis of patients with fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma: a national perspective. J Am Coll Surg. 2014;218(2):196–205. Scholar
  335. 335.
    Dabaja BS, Suki D, Pro B, et al. Adenocarcinoma of the small bowel: presentation, prognostic factors, and outcome of 217 patients. Cancer. 2004;101:518–26.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  336. 336.
    Locher C, Malka D, Boige V, et al. Combination chemotherapy in advanced small bowel adenocarcinoma. Oncology. 2005;69:290–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  337. 337.
    Overman MJ, Kopetz S, Wen S, et al. Chemotherapy with 5-fluorouracil and a platinum compound improves outcomes in metastatic small bowel adenocarcinoma. Cancer. 2008;113:2038–45.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  338. 338.
    Talamonti MS, Goetz LH, Rao S, et al. Primary cancers of the small bowel: analysis of prognostic factors and results of surgical management. Arch Surg. 2002;137:564–70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  339. 339.
    North JH, Pack MS. Malignant tumors of the small intestine: a review of 144 cases. Am Surg. 2000;66:46–51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  340. 340.
    Frost DB, Mercado PD, Tyrell JS. Small bowel cancer: a 30-year review. Ann Surg Oncol. 1994;1:290–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  341. 341.
    Bilimoria KY, Bentrem DJ, Wayne JD, et al. Small bowel cancer in the United States. Changes in epidemiology, treatment and survival over the last 20 years. Ann Surg. 2009;249:63–71.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  342. 342.
    Sadeghi B, Arvieux C, Glehen O, et al. Peritoneal carcinomatosis from non-gynecologic malignancies: results of the EVOCAPE 1 multicentric prospective study. Cancer. 2000;88:358–63.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  343. 343.
    Marchettini P, Sugarbaker PH. Mucinous adenocarcinoma of the small bowel with peritoneal seeding. Eur J Surg Oncol. 2002;28(1):19–23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  344. 344.
    Jacks SP, Hundley JC, Shen P, Russell GB, Levine EA. Cytoreductive surgery and intraperitoneal hyperthermic chemotherapy for peritoneal carcinomatosis from small bowel adenocarcinoma. J Surg Oncol. 2005;91(2):112–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  345. 345.
    Aparicio T, Svrcek M, Zaanan A, Beohou E, Laforest A, Afchain P, et al. Small bowel adenocarcinoma phenotyping, a clinicobiological prognostic study. Br J Cancer. 2013;109(12):3057–66.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  346. 346.
    Zaaimi Y, Aparicio T, Laurent-Puig P, Taieb J, Zaanan A. Advanced small bowel adenocarcinoma: molecular characteristics and therapeutic perspectives. Clin Res Hepatol Gastroenterol. 2016;40(2):154–60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  347. 347.
    Czaykowski P, Hui D. Chemotherapy in small bowel adenocarcinoma: 10-year experience of the British Columba Cancer Agency. Clin Oncol. 2007;19(2):143–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  348. 348.
    Ono M, Shirao K, Takashima A, Morizane C, Okita N, Takahari D, et al. Combination chemotherapy with cisplatin and irinotecan in patients with adenocarcinoma of the small intestine. Gastric Cancer. 2009;11(4):201–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  349. 349.
    Suenaga M, Mizunuma N, Chin K, Matsusaka S, Shinozaki E, Oya M, et al. Chemotherapy for small-bowel adenocarcinoma at a single institution. Surg Today. 2009;39(1):27–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  350. 350.
    Moon YW, Rha SY, Shin SJ, Chang H, Shim HS, Roh JK. Adenocarcinoma of the small bowel at a single Korean institute: management and prognosticators. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2010;136(3):387–94.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  351. 351.
    Zhang L, Wang LY, Deng YM, Wang FH, Feng F, Chen YC, et al. Efficacy of the FOLFOX/CAPOX regimen for advanced small bowel adenocarcinoma: a three-center study from China. J BUON. 2011;16(4):689–96.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  352. 352.
    Khan K, Peckitt C, Sclafani F, Watkins D, Rao S, Starling N, et al. Prognostic factors and treatment outcomes in patients with Small Bowel Adenocarcinoma (SBA): the Royal Marsden Hospital (RMH) experience. BMC Cancer. 2015;15:15.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  353. 353.
    Assersohn L, Norman A, Cunningham D, Benepal T, Ross PJ, Oates J. Influence of metastatic site as an additional predictor for response and outcome in advanced colorectal carcinoma. Br J Cancer. 1999;79(11–12):1800–5.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  354. 354.
    Tsushima T, Taguri M, Honma Y, Takahashi H, Ueda S, Nishina T, et al. Multicenter retrospective study of 132 patients with unresectable small bowel adenocarcinoma treated with chemotherapy. Oncologist. 2012;17(9):1163–70.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  355. 355.
    Xiang XJ, Liu YW, Zhang L, Qiu F, Yu F, Zhan ZY, et al. A phase II study of modified FOLFOX as first-line chemotherapy in advanced small bowel adenocarcinoma. Anti-Cancer Drugs. 2012;23(5):561–56.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  356. 356.
    Rovers KP, de Bree E, Yonemura Y, de Hingh IH. Treatment of peritoneal metastases from small bowel adenocarcinoma. Int J Hyperth. 2016;33(5):571–8. Scholar
  357. 357.
    Chua TC, Koh JL, Yan TD, Liauw W, Morris DL. Cytoreductive surgery and perioperative intraperitoneal chemotherapy for peritoneal carcinomatosis from small bowel adenocarcinoma. J Surg Oncol. 2009;100(2):139–43.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  358. 358.
    Elias D, Glehen O, Pocard M, Quenet F, Goéré D, Arvieux C, et al. A comparative study of complete cytoreductive surgery plus intraperitoneal chemotherapy to treat peritoneal dissemination from colon, rectum, small bowel, and nonpseudomyxoma appendix. Ann Surg. 2010;251(5):896–901.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  359. 359.
    Sun Y, Shen P, Stewart JH, Russell GB, Levine EA. Cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy for peritoneal carcinomatosis from small bowel adenocarcinoma. Am Surg. 2013;79(6):644–8.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  360. 360.
    Ramshorst B, Meijerink J, te Velde EA, et al. Peritoneal metastases from small bowel cancer: results of cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy in the Netherlands. Surgery. 2015;157(6):1023–7. Scholar
  361. 361.
    Liu Y, Ishibashi H, Takeshita K, Mizumoto A, Hirano M, Sako S, et al. Cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy for peritoneal dissemination from small bowel malignancy: results from a single specialized center. Ann Surg Oncol. 2016;23(5):1625–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  362. 362.
    Legué LM, Bernards N, Gerritse SL, van Oudheusden TR, de Hingh IH, Creemers GM, et al. Trends in incidence, treatment and survival of small bowel adenocarcinomas between 1999 and 2013: a population-based study in the Netherlands. Acta Oncol. 2016;55(9–10):1183–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  363. 363.
    Perez EA, Livingstone AS, Franceschi D, et al. Current incidence and outcomes of gastrointestinal mesenchymal tumors including gastrointestinal stromal tumors. J Am Coll Surg. 2006;202:623–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  364. 364.
    Hirota S, Isozaki K, Moriyama Y, et al. Gain-of-function mutations of c-kit in human gastrointestinal stromal tumors. Science. 1998;279:577–80.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  365. 365.
    Joensuu H, Eriksson M, Sundby HK, et al. One vs three years of adjuvant imatinib for operable gastrointestinal stromal tumor: a randomized trial. JAMA. 2012;307:1265–72.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  366. 366.
    Miettinen M, Lasota J. Gastrointestinal stromal tumors: pathology and prognosis at different sites. Semin Diagn Pathol. 2006;23:70–83.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  367. 367.
    Demetri GD, Von Mehren M, Blanke CD, et al. Efficacy and safety of imatinib mesylate in advanced gastrointestinal stromal tumors. N Engl J Med. 2002;347:472–80.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  368. 368.
    Demetri G, Desai J, Fletcher JA, et al. SU11248, a multi-targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor, can overcome imatinib (IM) resistance caused by diverse genomic mechanisms in patients (pts) with metastatic gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST). Proc Am Soc Clin Oncol. 2004;22:3001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  369. 369.
    Bauer S, Hartmann JT, de Wit M, et al. Resection of residual disease in patients with metastatic gastrointestinal stromal tumors responding to treatment with imatinib. Int J Cancer. 2005;117:316–25.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  370. 370.
    Rutkowski P, Nyckowski P, Grzesiakowska U, et al. The clinical characteristics and the role of surgery and imatinib treatment in patients with liver metastases from c-Kit positive gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST). Neoplasma. 2003;50:438–42.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  371. 371.
    Raut CP, Posner M, Desai J, et al. Surgical management of advanced gastrointestinal stromal tumors after treatment with targeted systemic therapy using kinase inhibitors. J Clin Oncol. 2006;24:2325–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  372. 372.
    Glehen O, Gilly F, Boutitie F, Bereder JM, Quenet F, Sideris L, et al. Toward curative treatment of peritoneal carcinomatosis from non ovarian origin by cytoreductive surgery combined with perioperative intraperitoneal chemotherapy. Cancer. 2010;16:5608–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  373. 373.
    Pommier RF, Brennan MF. An eleven-year experience with adrenocortical carcinoma. Surgery. 1992;112:963–70; discussion 970–1.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  374. 374.
    Assie G, Antoni G, Tissier F, et al. Prognostic parameters of metastatic adrenocortical carcinoma. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2007;92:148–54.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  375. 375.
    Amini N, Margonis GA, Kim Y, et al. Curative resection of adrenocortical carcinoma: rates and patterns of postoperative recurrence. Ann Surg Oncol. 2016;23(1):126–33.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  376. 376.
    Gonzalez RJ, Shapiro S, Sarlis N, et al. Laparoscopic resection of adrenal cortical carcinoma: a cautionary note. Surgery. 2005;138:1078–85; discussion 1085–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  377. 377.
    Leboulleux S, Deandreis D, Al Ghuzlan A, et al. Adrenocortical carcinoma: is the surgical approach a risk factor of peritoneal carcinomatosis? Eur J Endocrinol. 2010;162(6):1147–53.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  378. 378.
    Miller BS, Gauger PG, Hammer GD, Doherty GM. Resection of adrenocortical carcinoma is less complete and local recurrence occurs sooner and more often after laparoscopic adrenalectomy than after open adrenalectomy. Surgery. 2012;152(6):1150–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  379. 379.
    Lombardi CP, Raffaelli M, De Crea C, et al. Open versus endoscopic adrenalectomy in the treatment of localized (stage I/II) adrenocortical carcinoma: results of a multiinstitutional Italian survey. Surgery. 2012;152(6):1158–64.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  380. 380.
    Margonis GA, Kim Y, Prescott JD, et al. Adrenocortical carcinoma: impact of surgical margin status on long-term outcomes. Ann Surg Oncol. 2016;23(1):134–41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  381. 381.
    Sugarbaker PH. Peritoneal metastases from adrenal cortical carcinoma treated by cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy. Tumori. 2016;102(6):588–92. Scholar
  382. 382.
    Sheen-Chen SM, Liu YW, Sun CK, Lin SE, Eng HL, Huang WT, Ko SF. Abdominal carcinomatosis attributed to metastatic breast carcinoma. Dig Dis Sci. 2008;53(11):3043–5. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  383. 383.
    Bertozzi S, Londero AP, Cedolini C, et al. Prevalence, risk factors, and prognosis of peritoneal metastasis from breast cancer. SpringerPlus. 2015;4:688. Scholar
  384. 384.
    Tuthill M, Pell R, Giuliani R, Lim A, Gudi M, Contractor KB, et al. Peritoneal disease in breast cancer: a specific entity with an extremely poor prognosis. Eur J Cancer. 2009;45:2146–9. Scholar
  385. 385.
    Nazareno J, Taves D, Preiksaitis HG. Metastatic breast cancer to the gastrointestinal tract: a case series and review of the literature. World J Gastroenterol. 2006;12:6219–34.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  386. 386.
    Harris JR, Morrow M, Bonadonna G. Cancer of the breast. In: De Vita VT, Hellman S, Rosemberg SA, editors. Cancer, principles and practice of oncology. 4th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott; 1993. p. 1264e332.Google Scholar
  387. 387.
    Mc Lemore EC, Pockaj BA, Reynolds C, Gray RJ, Hernandez JL, Grant CS, et al. Breast cancer: presentation and intervention in women with gastrointestinal metastases and carcinomatosis. Ann Surg Oncol. 2005;12:886–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  388. 388.
    Cardi M, Sammartino P, Framarino ML, Biacchi D, Cortesi E, Sibio S, et al. Treatment of peritoneal carcinomatosis from breast cancer by maximal cytoreduction and HIPEC: a preliminary report on 5 cases. Breast. 2013;22:845–9. Scholar
  389. 389.
    Abu-Rustum NR, Aghajanian CA, Venkatraman ES, Feroz F, Barakat RR. Metastatic breast carcinoma to the abdomen and pelvis. Gynecol Oncol. 1997;66:41–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  390. 390.
    Curtin JP, Barakat RR, Hoskins WJ. Ovarian disease in women with cancer preoperatively breast cancer. Obstet Gynecol. 1994;84:449–52.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  391. 391.
    Tornos C, Soslow R, Chen S, Akram M, Hummer AJ, Abu Rustum N, et al. Expression of WT1, Ca125 and GCDFP-15 as useful markers in the differential diagnosis of primary ovarian carcinomatosis versus metastatic breast cancer to the ovary. Am J Surg Pathol. 2005;20:1482e9.Google Scholar
  392. 392.
    Silbersten GB, Vanhorn K, Strickland P, Roberts CT Jr, Daniel CW. Altered expression of the WT1 Wilms tumor suppressor gene in human breast cancer. Proc Natl Acad Sci. 1997;94:8132e7.Google Scholar
  393. 393.
    Chieng DC, Rodriguez-Burford C, Talley LI, Sviglin H, Stockard CR, Kleinberg MJ, et al. Expression of CEA, Tag72 and Lewis-Y antigen in primary and metastatic lesions of ovarian carcinomas. Hum Pathol. 2003;34:1016e21.Google Scholar
  394. 394.
    Wick MR, Lillemoe TJ, Copland GJ, Swanson PE, Manivel JC, Klang DT. Gross cystic disease fluid protein-15 as a marker for breast cancer: immunohistochemical analysis of 690 human neoplasms and comparison with alpha lactalbumin. Hum Pathol. 1989;20:281e7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  395. 395.
    Ayhan A, Tuncer S, Bukulmez O. Malignant tumors metastatic to the ovaries. J Surg Oncol. 1995;60:268–76.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  396. 396.
    Demopoulos R, Touger L, Dubin N. Secondary ovarian carcinoma. Int J Gynecol Pathol. 1987;6:16–175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  397. 397.
    Webb M, Decker D, Musey E. Cancer metastatic to the ovary. Obstet Gynecol. 1975;45:391–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  398. 398.
    Petru E, Pickel H, Heiderfadai M, Lahousen M, Haas J, Scheider H, et al. Nongenital cancers metastatic to the ovary. Gynecol Oncol. 1992;44:83–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  399. 399.
    Eitan R, Gemignani ML, Verkatraman ES, Barakat RR, Abu-Rustum RR. Breast cancer metastatic to abdomen and pelvis. Role of surgical resection. Gynecol Oncol. 2003;90:397e401.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  400. 400.
    Honoré C, Goèré D, Dartigues P, et al. Peritoneal carcinomatosis from solid pseudopapillary neoplasm of the pancreas treated with HIPEC. Anticancer Res. 2012;32:1069–73.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Surgical OncologyFortis HospitalBangaloreIndia
  2. 2.Department of Surgical OncologyCancer Institute (WIA)ChennaiIndia

Personalised recommendations