# Coordinated Voltage Control in Active Distribution Networks

## Abstract

With increasing connection of distributed generations (DGs), the power flow in electric distribution network is no longer unidirectional and the network has become active distribution network. Thus, the connection of DGs in electric distribution networks has created a challenge for distribution network operators due to bidirectional power flow. One of the main technical challenges of an active distribution network is to maintain an acceptable voltage level in the system. This has initiated efforts in using various voltage control strategies to regulate the network voltage profile so that the voltage is maintained at its allowable voltage limits. A number of voltage control methods have been applied to solve voltage control problems associated with the connection of DGs in a distribution system. These voltage control strategies may be classified as decentralized or distributed and centralized or coordinated voltage control. From the literature, a number of coordinated voltage control strategies have been implemented to provide better and faster control to the system. This chapter presents an improved coordinated voltage control method in active electric distribution network by coordinating the three voltage control methods, namely, power factor control, on load tap changer control and generation curtailment control. These voltage control methods are coordinated using fuzzy logic by considering the load bus voltages and DG power as inputs and the voltage control actions as the outputs. The fuzzy logic if-then control rules which are generated to build the fuzzy logic control system are based on the simulations results as well as from the previous works. Results obtained using the fuzzy logic based coordinated voltage control has shown that the voltages are able to be kept within its permissible limits.

## Keywords

Voltage control Coordinated control Active distribution network Distributed generation Fuzzy logic## References

- 1.R. Hidalgo, in
*A review of active distribution networks enabling technologies*, IEEE Power and Energy Society Meeting, pp. 1–9 (2010)Google Scholar - 2.C. A’damo, S. Jupe, C. Abbey, Global survey on planning and operation of active distribution networks, in
*The 20th International Conference and Exhibition on Electricity Distribution—Part 2*, pp. 1–9 (2009)Google Scholar - 3.J. McDonald, Adaptive intelligent power systems: active distribution networks. J. Energy Policy
**36**(12), 4346–4351 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar - 4.A.A. Bayod, J. Mur, J.L. Bernal, J.A. Dominguez, Definitions for distributed generation: a revision, in
*International Conference on Renewable Energies and Power Qualities*, pp. 1–4 (2005)Google Scholar - 5.A. Kulmala, K. Maki, S. Repo, P. Jarventausta, Including active voltage level management in planning of distribution networks with distributed generation. IEEE Bucharest PowerTech, 1–6 (2009)Google Scholar
- 6.N. Jenkins, R. Allan, P. Crossley, D. Kirschen, G. Strbac, Embedded Generation: The Institution of Electrical Engineers, London (2000)Google Scholar
- 7.T. Sansawatt, J. O’Donnell, L.F. Ochoa, G.P. Harrison, Decentralised voltage control for active distribution networks, in
*Proceedings of the 44th International Power Engineering Conference (UPEC)*, pp. 1–5 (2009)Google Scholar - 8.G. Strbac, N. Jenkins, M. Hird, P. Djapic, G. Nicholson, Integration of operation of embedded generation and distribution networks. Final Report Manchester Centre for Electrical Energy (2002)Google Scholar
- 9.T. Senjyu, Y. Miyazato, A. Yona, N. Urasaki, T. Funabashi, Optimal distribution voltage control and coordination with distributed generation. IEEE Trans. Power Deliv.
**23**(2), 1236–1242 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar - 10.T. Sansawatt, L.F. Ochoa, G.P. Harrison, in
*Integrating distributed generation using decentralised voltage regulation*, IEEE Power and Energy Society Meeting, pp. 1–6 (2010)Google Scholar - 11.J. Mutale, Benefits of active management of distribution networks with distributed generation, in
*IEEE PES Power Systems Conference and Exposition*, pp. 601–606 (2006)Google Scholar - 12.T. Xu, P.C. Taylor, Voltage control techniques for electrical distribution networks including distributed generation, in
*17th World Congress of the International Federation of Automatic Control*, pp. 11967–11971 (2008)Google Scholar - 13.P.N. Vovos, A.E. Kiprakis, A.R. Wallace, G.P. Harrison, Centralized and distributed voltage control: impact on distributed generation penetration. IEEE Trans. Power Syst.
**22**(1), 476–483 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar - 14.A.E. Kiprakis, A.R. Wallace, Maximising energy capture from distributed generators in weak networks. IEE Proc. Gener. Transm. Distrib.
**151**(5), 611–618 (2004)Google Scholar - 15.W. Freitas, J.C.M. Vieira, A. Morelato, W. Xu, Influence of excitation system control modes on the allowable penetration level of distributed synchronous generators. IEEE Trans. Energy Convers.
**20**(2), 474–480 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar - 16.C. Gao, M.A. Redfern, A review of voltage control techniques of networks with distributed generations using On-Load Tap Changer transformers, in
*45th International Universities Power Engineering Conference (UPEC)*, pp. 1–6 (2010)Google Scholar - 17.M. Thomson, Automatic voltage control relays and embedded generation. Power Eng. J.
**14**(2), 71–76 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar - 18.J. Hiscock, N. Hiscock, A. Kennedy, Advanced voltage control for networks with distributed generation, in
*19th International Conference on Electricity Distribution*, pp. 1–4 (2007)Google Scholar - 19.M. Fila, G.A. Taylor, J. Hiscock, M.R. Irving, P. Lang, Flexible voltage control to support distributed generation in distribution networks, in
*43rd International Universities Power Engineering Conference*, pp. 1–5 (2008)Google Scholar - 20.H.Y. Li, H. Leite, in
*Increasing distributed generation using automatic voltage reference setting technique*, IEEE Power and Energy Society General Meeting—Conversion and Delivery of Electrical Energy in the 21st Century, pp. 1–7 (2008)Google Scholar - 21.Q. Zhou, J.W. Bialek, Generation curtailment to manage voltage constraints in distribution networks. IET Gener. Transm. Distrib.
**1**(3), 492–498 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar - 22.R. Tonkoski, L.A.C. Lopes, D. Turcotte, Active power curtailment of PV inverters in diesel hybrid mini-grids, in
*IEEE Electrical Power & Energy Conference (EPEC)*, pp. 1–6 (2009)Google Scholar - 23.R. Tonkoski, L.A.C. Lopes, , T.H.M. El-Fouly, Droop-based active power curtailment for overvoltage prevention in grid connected PV inverters, in
*IEEE International Symposium on Industrial Electronics (ISIE)*, pp. 2388–2393 (2010)Google Scholar - 24.A. Kulmala, K. Maki, S. Repo, P. Jarventausta, Including active voltage level management in planning of distribution networks with distributed generation. IEEE Bucharest PowerTech, 1–6 (2009)Google Scholar
- 25.E.M. Davidson, S.D.J. McArthur, M.J. Dolan, J.R. McDonald, in
*Exploiting intelligent systems techniques within an autonomous regional active network management system*, IEEE Power & Energy Society General Meeting, pp. 1–8 (2009)Google Scholar - 26.I. Roytelman, V. Ganesan, Coordinated local and centralized control in distribution management systems. IEEE Trans. Power Deliv.
**15**(2), 718–724 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar - 27.L. Ran, F. Spinato, P. Taylor, R. Wilson, D. Jackman, Coordinated AVR and tap changing control for an autonomous industrial power system. IEE Proc. Gener. Transm. Distrib.
**153**(6), 617–623 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar - 28.B. Fabio, C. Roberto, P. Valter, Radial MV networks voltage regulation with distribution management system coordinated controller. Electr. Power Syst. Res.
**78**(4), 634–645 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar - 29.T.G. Hazel, N. Hiscock, J. Hiscock, Voltage regulation at sites with distributed generation. IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl.
**44**(2), 445–454 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar - 30.F. Pilo, G. Pisano, G. Soma, Advanced DMS to manage active distribution networks. IEEE Bucharest PowerTech, pp. 1–8 (2009)Google Scholar
- 31.K. Diwold, W. Yan, L. De Alvaro Garcia, L. Mocnik, M. Braun, Coordinated voltage-control in distribution systems under uncertainty, in
*47th International Universities Power Engineering Conference (UPEC)*, pp. 1–6 (2012)Google Scholar - 32.C.M. Hird, H. Leite, N. Jenkins, H. Li, Network voltage controller for distributed generation. IEE Proc. Gener. Transm. Distrib.
**151**(2), 150–156 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar - 33.R. Caldon, S. Spelta, V. Prandoni, R. Turri, Coordinated voltage regulation in distribution networks with embedded generation, in
*18th International Conference on Electricity Distribution*, pp. 1–4 (2005)Google Scholar - 34.L.A. Kojovic, in
*Coordination of distributed generation and step voltage regulator operations for improved distribution system voltage regulation*, IEEE Power Engineering Society General Meeting, pp. 1–4 (2006)Google Scholar - 35.A.D.T. Le, K.M. Muttaqi, M. Negnevitsky, G. Ledwich, Response coordination of distributed generation and tap changers for voltage support, in
*Australasian Universities Power Engineering Conference*, pp. 1–7 (2007)Google Scholar - 36.H. Hiroyuki, H. Kobayashi, A study of centralized voltage control method for distribution system with distributed generation, in
*19th International Conference on Electricity Distribution*(2007), pp. 1–4Google Scholar - 37.F.A. Viawan, D. Karlsson, in
*Coordinated voltage and reactive power control in the presence of distributed generation*, IEEE Power and Energy Society General Meeting—Conversion and Delivery of Electrical Energy in the 21st Century (2008), pp. 1–6Google Scholar - 38.T. Senjyu, Y. Miyazato, A. Yona, N. Urasaki, T. Funabashi, Optimal distribution voltage control and coordination with distributed generation. IEEE Trans. Power Deliv.
**23**(2), 1236–1242 (2008)Google Scholar - 39.V. Thornley, J. Hill, P. Lang D. Reid, Active network management of voltage leading to increased generation and improved network utilisation, IET-CIRED Seminar on SmartGrids for Distribution, pp. 1–4 (2008)Google Scholar
- 40.M.S. El Moursi, B. Bak-Jensen, M.H. Abdel-Rahman, Coordinated voltage control scheme for SEIG-based wind park utilizing substation STATCOM and ULTC transformer. IEEE Trans. Sustain. Energy
**2**(3), 246–255 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar - 41.B.B. Zad, J. Lobry, F. Vallee, Coordinated control of on-load tap changer and D-STATCOM for voltage regulation of radial distribution systems with DG units, in
*3rd International Conference on Electric Power and Energy Conversion Systems*(2013), pp. 1–5Google Scholar - 42.Z. Hu, X. Wang, H. Chen, G.A. Taylor, Volt/VAr control in distribution systems using a time-interval based approach. IEE Proc. Gener. Transm. Distrib.
**150**(5), 548–554 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar - 43.J. Sugimoto, R. Yokoyama, Y. Fukuyama, V.V.R. Silva, H. Sasaki, Coordinated allocation and control of voltage regulators based on reactive tabu search. IEEE Russia Power Tech. 1–6 (2005)Google Scholar
- 44.W.K. Gwang, K.Y. Lee, Coordination control of ULTC transformer and STATCOM based on an artificial neural network. IEEE Trans. Power Syst.
**20**(2), 580–586 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar - 45.R.H. Liang, X.Z. Liu, Neuro-fuzzy based coordination control in a distribution system with dispersed generation system, in
*International Conference on Intelligent Systems Applications to Power Systems*(2007), pp. 1–6Google Scholar - 46.S. Auchariyamet, S. Sirisumrannukul, Optimal daily coordination of volt/var control devices in distribution systems with distributed generators, in
*45th International Universities Power Engineering Conference (UPEC)*(2010), pp. 1–6Google Scholar - 47.R.A. Shalwala, J.A.M. Blejis, Voltage control scheme using fuzzy logic for residential area networks with PV Generators in Saudi Arabia, in
*IEEE PES Conference on Innovative Smart Grid Technologies*(2011), pp. 1–6Google Scholar - 48.R. Shivarudrswamy, D.N. Gaonkar, S.K. Nayak, Coordinated voltage control in 3 phase unbalanced distribution system with multiple regulators using genetic algorithm. Energy Procedia, 1199–1206 (2012)Google Scholar
- 49.S. Abapour, E. Babaei, B.Y. Khanghah, Application of active management on distribution network considering technical issues, in
*2nd Iranian Conference on Smart Grids*(2012), pp. 1–6Google Scholar - 50.L.A. Zadeh, Fuzzy sets. J. Inf. Control
**8**(3), 338–353 (1965)CrossRefMATHGoogle Scholar - 51.M. Negnevitsky,
*Artificial Intelligence, A Guide To Intelligent Systems*(Pearson Education Limited, 2011)Google Scholar - 52.A.E. Kiprakis, A.R. Wallace, Maximising energy capture from distributed generators in weak networks. IEE Proc. Gener. Transm. Distrib.
**151**(5), 611–618 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar - 53.F.A. Viawan, D. Karlsson, in
*Coordinated voltage and reactive power control in the presence of distributed generation*, IEEE Power and Energy Society General Meeting—Conversion and Delivery of Electrical Energy in the 21st Century (2008), pp. 1–6Google Scholar - 54.I. Leibe, Integration of wind power in medium voltage networks—voltage control and losses, Ph.D thesis, Lund University, 2011Google Scholar