Role of State and Regulatory Instruments

  • Ashish Bharadwaj
Part of the SpringerBriefs in Economics book series (BRIEFSECONOMICS)


The aim of this chapter is to obtain present information about the environmental legislations and the overall development of standards and norms relevant to the transport industry in Germany, India, China, and Brazil. It is evident that Germany, as part of a bigger commitment by Europe, led the way in setting performance targets, imposing binding emission limits, and helping the industry adjust to all these changes. The other countries followed this path making necessary technical changes to the regulations to suit local needs. The implementation and adoption of new measures were done at different times in these countries. Even though India has had a structured vehicular pollution control plan since early 1990s, it was very slow in keeping pace with the changing environment and industrial development. China, on the other hand, joined the regulatory bandwagon very late but it took the right decisions within the last decade to catch up with others. The Brazilian case was slightly different from its counterparts. Brazil, like India, started early and, like China, decided to push its reform agenda in the right direction in the 1990s and early 2000s. However, Brazil failed to keep the momentum going because of which it now lags behind other countries in adopting stricter regulations.


  1. An, F., & Sauer, A. (2004). Comparison of passenger vehicle fuel economy and GHG emission standards around the world. World Resources Institute, December.Google Scholar
  2. Baumol, W. J., & Oates, W. E. (1971). The use of standards and prices for protection of the environment. Swedish Journal of Economics, 73(1), 42–54.Google Scholar
  3. CPCB. (2010). Status of the Vehicular Pollution Control Programme in India. Ministry of Environment & Forests, Government of India, New Delhi.Google Scholar
  4. Cropper, M., & Oates, W. (1992). Environmental economics: A survey. Journal of Economic Literature, 30(2), 675–740.Google Scholar
  5. EPB. (2002). Strengthening vehicle inspection and maintenance. Multi-sectoral Action Plan Group, Environmental Protection Bureau of Chongqing, July 2002, PR of China.Google Scholar
  6. Faiz, A., Weaver, C., & Walsh, M. (1996). Air Pollution from Motor Vehicles, Standards and Technologies for Controlling Emissions, Washington DC: The World Bank.Google Scholar
  7. IBAMA. (2011). Air Pollution Control Program by Motor Vehicles, Proconve and Promot. Environmental Collection 3rd edition, Guideline Series—Environmental Management No. 3, Ministry of Environment, Brasilia. Google Scholar
  8. Jaffe, A., Newell, R., & Stavins, R. (2005). A tale of two market failures: Technology and environmental policy. Ecological Economics, 54, 164–174.Google Scholar
  9. Kathuria, V. (2002). Vehicular Pollution Control in Delhi, India. Transportation Research, Part D, 7(5): 373–87.Google Scholar
  10. Kolstad, C. D., Ulen, T. S., & Johnson, G. V. (1990). Ex post liability for Harm vs. ex ante safety regulation: Substitutes or complements? American Economic Review, 80, 888–901.Google Scholar
  11. MEP. (2010). China Vehicle Emission Control Annual Report 2010, Ministry of Environmental Protection of the Peoples Republic of China, Beijing.Google Scholar
  12. MoEF. (2010). India: Greenhouse Gas Emissions 2007. INCCA Indian Network for Climate Change Assessment, MoEF, Government of India.Google Scholar
  13. Nelissen, D., & Requate T. (2004). Pollution-reducing and resource-saving technological progress. Christian-Albrechts-Universitat Kiel, Working Paper No. 2004-07.Google Scholar
  14. OECD. (1997). Evaluating economic instruments for environmental policy. Paris: OECD.Google Scholar
  15. Pandey, K., David, W., Ostro,B., Deichmann, U.,Hamilton,L., & Bolt, K. (2006). Ambient Particulate Matter Concentrations in Residential and Pollution Hotspot Areas of World Cities: New Estimates Based on the Global Model of Ambient Particulates (GMAPS), Development Research Group and Environment Department, Washington D.C: World BankGoogle Scholar
  16. Schmitz, P. W. (2000). On the joint use of liability and safety regulation. International Review of Law and Economics, 20(3), 371–382.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Shavell, S. (1984). A model of the optimal use of liability and safety regulation. Rand Journal of Economics, 15, 271–280.Google Scholar
  18. UNESCAP. (2011). Review of developments in transport in Asia and the Pacific transport division of ESCAP. Thailand: United Nations.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Jindal Global Law SchoolO.P. Jindal Global UniversitySonipatIndia

Personalised recommendations