Advertisement

Beyond Futuna: John Scott, Modern Architecture and Māori in Aotearoa New Zealand

  • Julia Gatley
  • Bill McKay
Chapter

Abstract

John Scott is an important New Zealand architect of the post-war period and was also one of the country’s first architects of Māori heritage. His work is well known and widely admired. It includes houses, schools, churches—notably Futuna Chapel—institutional buildings such as visitor centres and one of the country’s first urban marae (Māori building complexes, traditionally tribal and communal). Because of his Māori heritage, many commentators have read Māori references into his buildings, but Scott himself always emphasised his dual heritage and referred to both Māori whare (houses/buildings) and Pākehā woolsheds as important building types in New Zealand’s architectural history. They become precedents for his own work. This chapter explores Scott’s life and work, and locates the work within the contexts of race relations, cultural development, New Zealand’s concern with national identity and its burgeoning regional modernism. It presents a body of work that is rich in ideas, references, spatial quality, materials, textures, geometry and luminosity.

References

  1. Architectural Group. (1946). On the necessity for architecture: The manifesto of the Architectural Group. Auckland: Architectural Group.Google Scholar
  2. Brown, D. (2005). Inventing an idiom. Heritage New Zealand. Spring, 8–13.Google Scholar
  3. Brown, D. (2009). Māori architecture: From fale to wharenui and beyond. Auckland: Raupo.Google Scholar
  4. Churchill Award. (1969). New Zealand Institute of Architects Journal, 36(2), 65.Google Scholar
  5. Crocombe, R. (1992). Pacific neighbours: New Zealand’s relations with other Pacific Islands. Christchurch & Suva: University of Canterbury & University of the South Pacific.Google Scholar
  6. Ferguson, G. (1994). Building the New Zealand dream. Palmerston North: Dunmore Press.Google Scholar
  7. First Maori Member. (1965). Journal of the New Zealand Institute of Architects, 32(1), 7.Google Scholar
  8. Gatley, J. (Ed.). (2008a). Long live the modern: New Zealand’s new architecture, 1904–1984. Auckland: Auckland University Press.Google Scholar
  9. Gatley, J. (2008b). St Canice’s (Catholic) Church. In J. Gatley (Ed.), Long live the modern: New Zealand’s new architecture, 1904–1984. Auckland: Auckland University Press, 207.Google Scholar
  10. Gatley, J. (Ed). (2009a). Cultural crossroads: Proceedings of the 26th International SAHANZ Conference. Auckland: SAHANZ.Google Scholar
  11. Gatley, J. (2009b). Itinerary no. 23: John Scott: Hawkes Bay public buildings. Block: The Broadsheet of the Auckland Branch of the New Zealand Institute of Architects, 6, 1–3.Google Scholar
  12. Gatley, J. (2010a). Group Architects: Towards a New Zealand architecture. Auckland: Auckland University Press.Google Scholar
  13. Gatley, J. (2010b). Who was who in the Group? In J. Gatley (Ed.), Group Architects: Towards a New Zealand architecture (pp. 6–19). Auckland: Auckland University Press.Google Scholar
  14. Gatley, J., & McKay, B. (2010). Novel building ventures: Group experiments in design and build. In J. Gatley (Ed.), Group Architects: Towards a New Zealand architecture (pp. 36–50). Auckland: Auckland University Press.Google Scholar
  15. Gold Medal: John Scott. (1999). Architecture New Zealand. May–June, 72–73.Google Scholar
  16. Grover, R. (1973). Interview with John Scott and Rossano (Ming Ching) Fan: Of woolsheds, houses and people. Islands. A New Zealand Quarterly of Arts and Letters, 2(3), 289–302.Google Scholar
  17. Hayward, J. (1989). Houses: They’re an art form. North and South. March, 83–91.Google Scholar
  18. Hill, C., & McKay, B. (2018). Binding significance: Reflections on the demolition of the Aniwaniwa Visitor Centre, Te Urewera. Fabrications. The Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians, Australia and New Zealand, 28(2), 235–255.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Jenner, R. (1989). Building a watershed. New Zealand Listener, 18 March, 54, 59.Google Scholar
  20. Johnson, L. (1959). The work of John Scott, Hawkes Bay architect. Te Ao Hou: The New World, 28, 36–38.Google Scholar
  21. King, M. (1992). Between two worlds. In G. Rice (Ed.), The Oxford history of New Zealand (pp. 285–307). Auckland: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  22. Mane-Wheoki, J. (1990). Work of Maori architects adds to our heritage. New Zealand Historic Places. December, 29–33.Google Scholar
  23. Maori Battalion Memorial: A distinguished building by a gifted architect. (1964). Te Ao Hou: The New World, 47, 32–33.Google Scholar
  24. Maori Welfare Housing File. Group Box 7. Architecture Archive, Architecture and Planning Library, University of Auckland, Auckland.Google Scholar
  25. Martin, B. (2007). Interview with Julia Gatley.Google Scholar
  26. McCarthy, C. (2009). Voices of silence reconsidered. Fabrications: The Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians, Australia and New Zealand, 19(1), 26–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. McKay, B. (1998). The whare face of Modernism. In J. Willis, P. Goad, & A. Hutson (Eds.), FIRM(ness) commodity DE-light?: Questioning the canons; Proceedings of the 15th Annual Conference of the Society of Architectural Historians, Australia and New Zealand. Melbourne: SAHANZ.Google Scholar
  28. McKay, B. (2005). Architecture and Maori in the sixties: Through the window of Te Ao Hou. In C. McCarthy (Ed.), ‘About as austere as a Dior gown’: New Zealand architecture in the 1960s (pp. 56–62). Wellington: Victoria University of Wellington.Google Scholar
  29. McKay, B. (2006). Halfcaste or bicultural: John Scott, Maori and architecture in the 1960s. In T. McMinn, J. Stephens, & S. Basson (Eds.), Contested terrains: Proceedings of the 23rd Annual Conference of the Society of Architectural Historians, Australia and New Zealand. Fremantle: SAHANZ, pp. 363–69.Google Scholar
  30. McKay, B. (2008a). Aniwaniwa Visitor Centre. In J. Gatley (Ed.), Long live the modern: New Zealand’s new architecture, 1904–1984. Auckland: Auckland University Press, 205.Google Scholar
  31. McKay, B. (2008b). The Brow (also known as the Pattison House). In Gatley, J. (Ed.), Long live the modern: New Zealand’s new architecture, 1904–1984. Auckland: Auckland University Press, 158.Google Scholar
  32. McKay, B. (2008c). Maori Battalion Memorial Hall. In J. Gatley (Ed.), Long live the modern: New Zealand’s new architecture, 1904–1984. Auckland: Auckland University Press, 134.Google Scholar
  33. McKay, B. (2008d). Martin House. In Gatley, J. (Ed.), Long live the modern: New Zealand’s new architecture, 1904–1984. Auckland: Auckland University Press, 176.Google Scholar
  34. McKay, B. (2008e). Ngamatea Homestead. In J. Gatley (Ed.), Long live the modern: New Zealand’s new architecture, 1904–1984 (pp. 220–21). Auckland: Auckland University Press.Google Scholar
  35. McKay, B. (2008f). Our Lady of Lourdes. In J. Gatley (Ed.), Long live the modern: New Zealand’s new architecture, 1904–1984. Auckland: Auckland University Press, 106.Google Scholar
  36. McKay, B. (2011). Modernists and Maori Housing 1960. In A. Moulis, & van der Plaat (Eds.), Audience: Proceedings of the XXVIIIth International Conference of the Society of Architectural Historians, Australia and New Zealand. Brisbane: SAHANZ, pp. 1–18.Google Scholar
  37. McKay, B. (2015). Worship: A history of New Zealand church design. Auckland: Godwit.Google Scholar
  38. Mountier, M. (1977). The Rarotongan. Designscape, 94(August), 27–40.Google Scholar
  39. Ngata, A. (1943). The price of citizenship. Wellington: Whitcombe & Tombs.Google Scholar
  40. Novel Building Venture: Student Architects; Evolving New Zealand Style. (1950). New Zealand Herald. 11 May, 11.Google Scholar
  41. O’Brien, G. (2016). Interviewed by Kim Hill. Radio New Zealand National. 2 July.Google Scholar
  42. O’Brien, G., & Bevin, N. (Eds.). (2016). Futuna: Life of a building. Wellington: Victoria University Press.Google Scholar
  43. Our Lady of Lourdes. (1973). Building progress. March, 12.Google Scholar
  44. Pascoe, P. (1940). Houses. Making New Zealand: Vol. 2, Pictorial Surveys of a Century. No. 20. Wellington: Department of Internal Affairs.Google Scholar
  45. Pattison, J. (2007). Interview with Julia Gatley.Google Scholar
  46. Richards, J. (1961). New buildings in the commonwealth. London: Architectural Press.Google Scholar
  47. Shanahan, M. (1991). Give me shelter Ngamatea. New Zealand Home and Building. August-September, 20–27.Google Scholar
  48. Shaw, P. (1991). The Group Architects and the Auckland house. Metro, 20, 120–28.Google Scholar
  49. Shaw, P. (2004). A shared aesthetic. New Zealand Home and Entertaining. December 2003–January 2004, 58–64.Google Scholar
  50. Sorrenson, M. (1990). Modern Maori: The Young Maori Party to Mana Motuhake. In K. Sinclair (Ed.), Oxford illustrated history of New Zealand (pp. 323–51). Auckland: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  51. Stacpoole, J., & Beaven, P. (1972). Architecture, 1820–1970. Wellington: Reed & Reed.Google Scholar
  52. Steiner, V. (1995). (Mis)appropriation in New Zealand architecture: An incriminating cite. Interstices: A Journal of Architecture and Related Arts, 4, 1–9.Google Scholar
  53. Stewart, K. (1995). The bold and the beautiful. New Zealand House and Garden. September, 22–27.Google Scholar
  54. Stewart, K. (1999). Living through art. Architecture New Zealand. July–August, 44–52.Google Scholar
  55. Terragni, E., & Thomas, H. (Eds.). (2012). 20th century world architecture. Phaidon: London & New York.Google Scholar
  56. The New Zealand Home (2016). Television series directed by John Hagen, and presented by Ken Crosson and Goran Paladin. Auckland: John Hagen Productions. Episode 1.Google Scholar
  57. Tributes to John Scott. (1992). Architecture New Zealand. September–October, 14–15.Google Scholar
  58. Walden, R. (1987). Voices of silence: New Zealand’s Chapel of Futuna. Wellington: Victoria University Press.Google Scholar
  59. Walden, R. (1988). Towards a bi-cultural identity. Architecture New Zealand. November–December, 92–95.Google Scholar
  60. Walden, R. (2000). Scott, John Colin, 1924–1992. In C. Orange (Ed.), Dictionary of New Zealand biography, Volume 5, 1941–60 (pp. 463–64). Wellington: Auckland University Press & Department of Internal Affairs.Google Scholar
  61. Walsh, J. (2007). Great Scott. Houses New Zealand, 3, 106–11.Google Scholar
  62. Whare Māori (2011). Television series presented by Rau Hoskins. Auckland: Scottie Productions.Google Scholar
  63. Wilson, J. (2008). Arthur’s Pass Chapel. In J. Gatley (Ed.), Long live the modern: New Zealand’s new architecture, 1904–1984. Auckland: Auckland University Press, 73.Google Scholar
  64. Wood, P. (2008). Firth Concrete Offices. In J. Gatley (Ed.), Long live the modern: New Zealand’s new architecture, 1904–1984. Auckland: Auckland University Press, 85.Google Scholar
  65. Wood, P. (2009). Hidden references: Evidence of influence in John Scott’s design for the Chapel of Futuna. In J. Gatley (Ed.), Cultural Crossroads: Proceedings of the 26th International SAHANZ Conference. Auckland: SAHANZ, pp. 1–17.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.The University of AucklandAucklandNew Zealand

Personalised recommendations